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St. Michael's College Courses
Paul Reale

SMC313H1 Setting the scene Upper Canada  was joined as Quebec and Ontario 1763  Ontario was initially settled by Americans  10 000 people in Upper Canada – largely homogenous society , not multicultural mainly British and conservative, loyal to the crown, believed in British constitution (Juris prudence) you don’t take rights away , a right is bestowed and you cannot take that away  Demand for English common law and representative institution ( local interests)  Dominant religion at the time is the church of England, they are the majority, in positions of authority and governments  Church of England dominates the political scene – methanists broke away from the church of England and they too found themselves in Upper Canada  Catholics are a minority group aswell- mainly French, Scottish or Irish  There are irish protestants who belong to the church of England, the ORG, that is what they are called. These protestants use to fight with Catholics ( ie. Riots) They loathed catholic’s in any position of power  Before 1841 governed by one house this tori conservative leadership they were aligned with staying in power and patronage  1840 ( the active union) “Canada east and Canada west” in lower Canada the rebellions are intense upper Canada was no comparison ( very little) o result of the rebellion proposed 40 seats from upper and 40 seat from lower, a senate and the governor general. o Political structure is important because the French had much to do with voting against catholic school acts Schooling In Upper Canada at the time  We don’t have institution , it was a decentralized notion of school its very private, the government is not involve, there is no school boards, and school is not mandatory. School was not completely identified. Wht you learn is contingint upon what the local community wants you to know, or the church or your parents.  Schooling is very local and is controlled by the people and not the government ( this is where the problems start to occur because ethe cgovernement is concerned with the control of the catholic school)  Grammar school act ( whwere you send school to get your kid educated classically ( greek latin etc) and they go off to university afterwards) You need to have money to go to these aka elite schools for church of England o This gets people of upper Canada seeing these grammar schools that are being implemented in certain districts and asking WHAT ABOUT US ? Common school act s  1816 they were for everybody , the “ common folk” assistance and government assistance to go to school first time the government intervenes in public school o Some people found it to be an intrusion because this threatens their own power. this BILL IS VERY PRIMITIVE ( VERY SHORT) o Rate bill  paid by parents whose children attend the school (tuition) a subscription set by trustees where you get the notion of elective trustees ( they pick location, teachers, material, and the rate bill) Only 20 kids to build a school. o Maintains local control because local trustees who run school can be your neighbor.  1841 The Day Act (common school act) national system of education ( different from today because we are provinvial) quebec and Ontario o maintains central and local governance ( trustees stay) o more structure in the education system o school funding formula  legislative grant o district councils who assess property in their district for the purposes of education o Rate bill continues (different from today in elementary and highschool now , everyone should be accessible) trustees still determine textbook, rate bill, and teachers (problem with incompetent teachers because they had no required certifications and didn’t pay very well) o Uniformity becomes an issue because not all districts are learning the same thing becaue different trustees are picking different textbooks BIG CHANGE  the arrival of Ryerson 1844 , he is a methadist which is a minority and is sick of the church of England. He believes in a comprehensive model, hes tired of imcompetent teach etc  First thing he does is go to Europe and looking at the schooling system from there. Ie Ireland, france etc  He keeps in mind the practical experience of the people, change does not happen over night , it evolves and you have to respect this. This is the only way to bring about change.  He wants universal (eliminate rate bill!) he thinks society should pay  Educating is with practical education, about agriculture and trade  What is the problem with mixed religious faiths in school (all Christian but catholic vs Anglican etc.)? Influence.  Ryerson advocates a common Christianity in schools (no secular schools) gets this idea from Ireland 1846 Ryerson puts together a new system  He believed in one uniform system because he sees it as protection from insult , as a grievance not as a right  This new system takes 10 residents to vote on separate schools September 25 2013 Lecture 3 1850 ( this is where the battles begin )  The catholic elite fight for catholic schools (bishops newspapers and these types of positions of upper classes) 1850 important for several reasons 1. free schools  universal schoolings; no rate bill. In 1850 you could either vote to fund schooling on rate bill or on a community base. Ryerson introduces this idea because he wants to eliminate the rate bill. He puts this clause where the community can exercises this decision voluntarily  now you need 12 people to lobby for separate school  double taxation becomes an issue   common school fund  common school trustees will be able to collect a rate and tax more on property but does not let separate school trustees to do this putting them in a disadvantaged place  the catholics will be forced to pay an extra assessment (double taxation) and all that money will go to common schools and not to separate school  for Ryerson he does not see this as a problem, because the issue of equality is not an issue to him because the idea of separate schools is a GRIEVANCE (  Charbonnele he comes in ( a montar… (takes orde from rome the papacy)  Char, in 1851, they lobby for a second separate school and it is shut down. Chjar is disappointed, the Toronto board of trustees is who is giving him a problem , because the common school act give every distrct one school.  Ryerson is fine with one separate school but does agree that Toronto should have more than one separate school.  Char is beginning to read this as LACK OF A RIGHT. He starts seeing this as an inequality.  1851 Ryerson is not making this into a right because he does not see the spirit of the law  Char gets a small victory and hes happy but he is not content with the notion that this is a grievance. He truly believes that this is a constitutional law. He looks to lower Canada where there is a majority cathoilic populace whom are being treated as equal to the minority protestants. Ryerson does not agree with this, but he senses that things are changing with Char  Rerson  wants one system, he sees that if every one breaks away then we are going back to the notion a sheer chaos 1853 char is chipping away at the notiion of double taxation because he looks again to lower Canada where the protestants do not have to support the other schools  The issue of equality come up even more strongly. Char begins to attack the idea of double taxation  Char wants Catholics to be able to opt out of the common school tax and he wants to base the funding on the entire catholic population ( at this time catholic population is 20%)  A lot of people are not going to catholic schools, many catholics are going to common schools  Ryerson says there is no way that they are going to fund it based on the catholic of the population ( which at the time is ¼) Most of the money is coming out of the protestant hand anyways  The funding issue needs to be dealt with according to Char  With enough lobbying from char you can choose where you would like your taxes to go ie. Tac rate go to separate school  Ryerson does not agree but he still sees it as a grievance and agrees that people shouldn’t pay for a school they don’t go to  1853 Is very significant because it creates a defacto ommon catholic school  catholics cintrol the certification of teachers, double taxation has been lifted  what REMAINS IN THE SEPERTE SCHOOL ACT ? as long as there is a basis of dessent (religious persuasion of the teacher)remains the sam e( protestant teacher) 1855 landmark piece of legislation “ tache act “  The separate school act of 1855 41 separate schools ( 3300 common schools)  protestants get angry that  landmark because 1. It does restricts the separate school clause to catholics only. A more defacto catholic school system. Only catholics could have a separate school system. This is a major victory.  2. To set up separate school you only need 5 catholic resident heads to set up. What you get is a RIGHT that becomes entrenched in the Canadian constitution, in the school act and in the colonies of upper Canada.  More rights for catholic school trustees. The grant that they receive can start to use it for what reason they want and not just to pay teachers  Most of this is done behind Ryerson’s back. But he is not a member of the governing party. Governing party is interested in votes and what their constituencies wants  Most of Canada west votes against this act  What we see going from a grievance to a right is based on Chabonelle  Dessent has been removed. Char disappears around 1856 and resigns in 1860 1859- 4000 common school 105 catholic schools 1860-63 Richard scott begins introducing more amendments and goes to an extreme. Wants catholic priests designated as legal trustees, and power of taxation.  Wants separate school to have own holidays  And wants trustees to have complete control of the curriculum  Bill keeps failing therefore  seperate school act of 1863  Catholics wants the system finalized, equal footing as what the protestants have in lower Canada  What happens is that Thomas darcy mcgee is largely responsible ( fatherof cinfederation) for ensuring catholic rights into the British North American act ( religion is protected) in the constitution section 93 1842  senses says 65200 catholics in Canada out of 487000 1852 167000 out of 1855 separate school act passes which doesn’t make sense because 88% of cathloc kids are in common schools and 12% in separate schools 1859  97% catholic kids are still in common schools Confederation 1867  Over 4400 common schools and 161 catholic schools  Where are the catholic children? Oct 9 2013 Defacto separate school system 1855  tache act the landmark legislation 1. it is an act that only applies to catholics 2. 2. The grievance is removed from opening a second school ( yo have a right to open a separate school only need 5 catholic heads where as before it was 12 ) 3. funding starts coming directly from the trustees Ryerson doesn’t see this as a thret because eh sees that this will fall apart anyway 1863 Scott (mp at the time) act (separate school act )  to be a trustee you must be over 21  you still have to file a notice to the local trustees that you will be  allows trustees to make their own school section, more kids more funding, a way of maximizing revenue  trustees can have a copy of the taxes  school from other district can go to other separate schools  separate school funding is based on average attendance 1867 BNA act and we get the rights of 1863 areentrenched under section 93 in the constitution  argument ( this separate school notion was a grievance and not a right ) and due to charbonnelle this became a right and later a constitutional right  the issue for catholic schools will no longer be due to equality but now becomes a notion of funding  this right is not being honoured because this right is not being ratified in the notion of funding  93 allows the federal government to defend these rights John Joseph Lynch  Chosen to replace Charbonnel  From Ireland studied in Manouph, first goes to America where he is a missionary, and then to buffalo and gets invited to Toronto 1860  In 1870 was announced as archbishop  Lynch takes a more pragmatic approach and understand that you have to build alliances unlike charbonnelle who was a loose canon  1889 27 separate schools in Toronto which means he was tripling numbers in that aspect  even though these numbers have increased there are till many catholic children in the public school system (people are voting with their feet )  with Canadian confederation we get the resignation of Ryerson in 1876 and we have a comprehensive system, birth of highschools, curriculum , centralization, into of new education (public school system is starting to look hw we see it today and is becoming largely free)  1872 free schools rate bill is eliminated, as this legislation is passed most school were already being free, although catholic highschools were not becoming free later on  these schools start to become about creating good citizens  Lynch has to deal with Oliver Mowat who was born in Kingston  Oliver Mowat becomes liberal  Mowat he wins 6 elections in a rown, 75,79,83,86,90,94  Adam crooks and George ross are also two names to take note of  Ontario is still very rural, and Mowat takes note of this, because he realizes that to win an elction you would have to win not in Toronto but everywhere else, and realizes he has to form an alliance with catholics, and their votes account for something (a lot)  Well mowat is building an alliance with lynch many are attacking mowat with lynch  Ie the red river rebellions  In new brunswick there is a loss of separate schools The orange order alines themselves with the conservative party in Ontario whoch is strange because the catholic church use to be aliened with the conservatives although due to Oliver Mowat becoming part of the liberals  Define this  This group is entirely anit-catholic  No catholic rights, “we will take away catholic rights” Mowat  Understands that catholics contribute to the swing votes or ridings in Canada and understands that you cannot approach things such as charbonelle did and this becomes a period of concession, little by little lynch chips away and gains some benefit that riel up protestants Marmian 1882 lord Marmian --> lynch approaches adam crooks about poem about nun Constance and asks to withdraw the poem from the education outrage because why can Catholics determine what is being taught in the common schools 1884 George ross minister of education at this time what was common school it is now public schools which open up with exercises which are quotes from the bible. George asks lynch to approve some of the selection. Protestant outrage because why does lynch have any say in what parts of the bible is going to open up public schools  not only are the attacks against catholics coming from orange order, protestants, conservatives but it is also coming from inside the catholic community  the laity want to be more involved in the catholic schools  in the Toronto separate school board, when they elect the trustees it is open voting , no ballets  open voting is highly influenced by lynch  Remy Elmsly which said lynch is misappropriating funds  Laity start asking for a secret ballet 1874  The conservative party begins to support that catholic laity in the secret ballet  Lynch hates this idea and it is a direct attack of the school board  It isn’t until after lynch passes away in 1889 that this notion of the secret ballet actually came into play  Convene bill which 1894 is the secret ballet  Now the laity start to have a stronger influence in the school sysren and not just the catholic elite who make these decisions about curriculum and education Life after Mowat and lynch Public and catholic school sustem are increasing and even ontarion
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