SMC313H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: French Leave, Francophone Assembly Of Ontario, Regulation 17
DepartmentSt. Michael's College Courses
SMC313 Lecture Ten – The Politics of Language and Money
Outline English, French Catholic regulation 17
Timeline 1900 – 1944
1. Education Roots
a. Bilingual Schools
b. Demographic changes
c. The religious undercurrent
2. The Desperate Struggle
a. Separate Schools Negotiation and ACFEO
b. Union of Orange and Green: Regulation 17
3. The Winds of Change
a. Tactical Maneuvers
b. The Contemporary Scenes
Bilingual Schools in air of tolerance. There are some French-speaking schools and in 1851 it
is made part of the Curriculum in public schools. The French-speaking was not seen as a
threat, especially by Ryerson (who thought they’d assimilation)
1889 Regulation 12 states that English must be the compulsory language, but you can use
other languages. However, English is mandatory. There are 223 French schools, which are
not sanctioned as permanent. There are more public French schools to expand money
There are many French-Canadian from Quebec, which is encouraged for farming. This
increases alongside railway and in the Ottawa Valley. In 1871, about 30thousand French-
Canadians and 1.6 Ontario (2% of pop’n). In 1881 it triples. The English feel threaten.
There are publications against the French invasion. There is the Protestant conscious about
the Frenhc priest. In 1888, the Whitney revolution tell their against stance for the French. All
In Ontario church, there is jealously. The Quebec was primarily in charge of the churches,
however English-speaking Catholic wanted more power. They were angered in Kingston,
London and Ontario. They believe that French have to stop in Ottawa River, including
stopping at Ottawa Sea.
A lot of English-Catholics were for the execution of Louis Royale.
Battle in Ottawa
Michael Francis Fallon is a bishop in 1990s, he is a major player in Catholic schools. He
establishes a school in Ottawa, that is run by the obligates. He is sent back in 1884 to
become an English professor and becomes a pastor in Bi-town. The French language is
being favored. For Fallon, the French language and Catholicism are two separate things,
whereas English language and Catholicism are the same. He is eventually pushed out by
the French obligates and sent to Buffalo. He becomes a priest. People are mad that he is
pushed out. Fallon comes back in 1999.
Naming the figures for English
English want control in who names the bishop in UC, don’t want the bishops of Quebec to
be assigned. In Ottawa in 1910 he is half-French Canadian and half-Scottish and attempts
to battle out. London is taken back by Fallon in 1990.
Separate Schools Negotiation and ACFEO
In 1904 James Raton looks over the French qualification. The ACFEO mandates that the
French Catholic must have qualifications. Francis Merchant in 1904 are going around to the
French schools to inspect them. In 1909, he says that the schools are bad and need
bilingual schools. The French want to protect their rights through the congress. There is
racial consciousness with pride in being Catholic. 12hundre meet in Ottawa and want
bilingual inspectors and better funding.
The English Catholic bishops were negating in 1909 for more funding, including corporate
funding through taxes and railways. In 1910 the French congress messes this up. Whitney is
under pressured from the Orange Protestants. He lumps the separate school and the
French under one umbrella.
For the French this is not a problem, because they have been together. However, the
English schools are angered. Fallon meets with Anna, which he will wipe out the French
Canadians. He says that he will support any removal of schools.
The English do not want to be in debt, because the separate schools were passed on the
French-Canadian backs (English were minority). The rise of the Ontario school is
questioned (Manitoba and News Brunswick). The Ontario school question is around
Do we extend funding to the Ontario/French schools?
The Ontario-English side with the Protestants while the French-Ontarians argue that the
agreement S.93 was supposed to protect language BUT English say only protect religion!
Whitney’s Tories gets 83 seats and 22 liberals 1 independent. Whitney says he promises to
find a settlement. He is ambiguous with the demands, making people think that he will either
support or shut down.
Merchant is commissioned in 1910, because the first time looked at it is in Ottawa Valley.
The province-wide state of French schools are terrible not just Ottawa. In the French
bilingual schools, Catholic doctrines are being taught. However, Protestants say that it is not
good because this is a public school.
Union of Orange and Green: Regulation 17
June 1907, restrict French language instruction to no more than one hour a day. French
claims that it becomes a national issue. The Whitney government in 1912, commission
regulation 18 which states the MOE can cancel teacher certificates and forfeit legislative
grants. The Ottawa separate schools boards do not comply with 18 or 17.
It cuts off money to English schools as well in the Ottawa Valley. The MOE shuts the board
5 commissioners run the Ottawa school boards because by 1916 they are deemed un-
Regulation 17 is taken to court because violates S. 93. However they are rejected. During
1917 there were prescriptions crisis too (assigning them to go to war).
The Winds of
Ottawa Catholics change their movements and the assault is changed. By 1920 Napoleon