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Trinity College Courses
Caroline Barakat

HLTC07: Patterns of Health, Disease, and Injury Lecture 6/7: Injuries Lecture Outline  Road Traffic Injuries Road Traffic Injuries  3000 people die from road traffic injury daily (globally) o Not equally distributed  Low-income and middle-income countries – big contributors o 85% of death and 90% DALY  Figure 1: the darker we get, the more it is concentrated in that area o Big burden in Africa, eastern Europe o Highlights certain needs and requirements to make it a safer road system Figure 2  High-income countries - decrease by 27% from 2000 to 2020 Low-income and middle-income countries - increase by 83%  Major change in the perception, understanding and practice of road injury prevention highlights in terms of table from the reading  Emphasize in high income country project a certain decrease  Low income: reverse trends  83% increase in low income and middle income countries in terms of road injury  Figure shows total number of fatal and injury collision in Ontario, there is an decrease, showing that these projections are decreasing  Why the decline in Ontario? o Policy for zero tolerance for drinking and driving o People get their G1 at a later age rather than 16 o Speed limits o Speed bumps implemented o Insurance rates o Technology o Media awareness Social and Economic Costs  Main objective: they change they vary 1970s; to assess the injury to provide an objective tool to pick the counter tools for prevention of road injuries; done to determine certain expenditures 1. Objective tool in selecting cost-effective countermeasures for road safety 2. Expenditures  But need for a clear perspective, which must be in tune with the prevailing society's perspective How is the burden of injury assessed? Indirect costs categorized; falls under 4 categories 1. Medical Costs o emergency transport, pharmaceutical, funeral proceedings, mental health 2. Other Resource Costs - police, fire, legal/court, and victim services, property damage o brought in and cost money 3. Work Loss Costs o Value productivity losses in relation to the person o Lost wages o Providing care for children short term and long term o Can be short term and long term 4. Quality of life - pain, suffering, and quality of life loss to victims and their families o any pain and suffering and lost of live gone due to injury Difficult? Figure 3  Different country and their GDP, and what their burden of injury for each country  Brazil 2% of GDP goes to injury  Problem: tables are given, have to be with caution, a lot of research shows they can be underestimated numbers Table 2.10 Recent Estimates of Economic Costs of Road Crashes. Country Study Costin g Value % GDP US$mil Source year metho d (1997) LAC 1997 HC 2.0% 15,681 IADB Review of Traffic Safety Brazil Asia Vietnam 1998 HC 0.3% 72 Technical Note: Accident Costing Bangladesh 1998 HC 0.5% 220 IDC Economics Working Paper Accident Costs Thailand 1997 HC 2.3% 3,810 SWEROAD Road Safety Master Plan Report Korea 1996 HC 2.6% 12,561 Elvik, 1999 Nepal Kerala, India6 HC HC 0.5% 0.8% 24-- Road Maintenance Component, TN Accident CostCga9d6 1993 'Cost of Road Accidents ieierence to Kerala' Accidentosts in Indonesia: A Review June 1997 (Draft Copy), Indonesia 1995 HC -- 691-958
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