Sept 18 – Foucault & Halperin
1. Freud argues children have sexuality having pleasure. Perversion:
sexuality related - diversion: invert is an outset of prevision. Freud
states when we grow up we repress our infantile sexuality and
manifest. Breastfeeding, sucking on thumb, or pacifier is associated
with pleasure without nourishment (Oral Stage).
2. During the Genital Stage, girls have penis envy and the clitoris is an
evolved form of the penis, proving women are inferior. Sexuality is an
active principal and men possessed it, and women shouldn’t or there
is something wrong. It is assumed that women are sexually passive.
3. Kissing is not only pleasurable but Freud argues some people can just
have an orgasm from kissing.
4. (Disinterested: unbiased) Freud challenged the science of the normal
definition of sex.
• Studied history of sexuality in time. Why does certain things happen
at certain periods, and what does it tell us about that culture and
The History of Sexuality (1974)
Pre-modern acts (medieval/ enlightenment/renaissance/industrial) vs.
modern identities (Modernism) (beginning of the 21 century)
End of the 19 century - Punishment & crime change radically with
the advent of modernity “identity” develops: what caused the
individual to commit the act (etiology - used to be punishable, now
• Foucault challenges the notion that sex was something “silenced” or
“repressed” during the Victorian era. Transformation of desire into
⇒ Materialist practice the produces power relations
⇒ Bound up with specific knowledge and institutions
⇒ Associated with institutions and their ways of establishing orders
of truth (Ex. What is acceptable as reality in a given society)
⇒ Dominant discourse is reinforced by existing systems of law,
education, and media (Ex. Ask someone for help on an injury
would not matter as much as asking a doctor who has power and
⇒ Our interest in discourse is to study the effects of power that are
generated by what is said, and the knowledge that is formed as