Conflict Theory Seminar.docx

10 Pages
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Department
Victoria College Courses
Course Code
VIC101H1
Professor
Vic Falkenheim

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Description
Conflict Theory Seminar The origins of Political Order- Fukuyama 9/25/2012 4:46:00 PM - 1970 – 2010 upsurge of number of democracies around world - transformation of Huntingtons third wave of democratization: liberal democracy as the default form of govt. was accepted political landscape at beginning of 21 century. - formerly passive individuals around world were ORGANIZING AND PARTICIPATING in the political life of their societies. Social mobilization was driven by host of factors: Access to education:- made people more aware of themselves and political world Information Technology:- Facilitated rapid spread of ideas and knowledge -> connectivity. Cheap Travel + Communications:- allowed people to vote with their feet if they didn’t like their govt. Greater prosperity:- induced people to demand better protection of their rights! st THIRD WAVE IN 1990- Democratic Recession (first decade of first 21 century) - 1/5 countries reverted back to authoritarianism or aw “significant erosion of democratic institutions” **Political Anxieties Malaise in democratic world took diff roles: - outright reversal of democratic gains- Russia, Iran, Venezuala ^ elected leaders were dismantling democratic institutions by MANIPULATING ELECTIONS. CLOSING DOWN OR BUYING INDEPENDENT TV AND NEWSPAPER OUTLETS CLAMPING DOWN ON OPPOSITION ACTIVITIES. Liberal Democracy- complex set of institutions that RESTRAIN AND REGULARIZE the exercise of power through law and a system of checks and balances. Many countries : official acceptance of democratic legitimacy was accompanied by systematic removal of checks on executive power and erosion of the rule of law! - other countries got stuck in gray zone (Thomas Carothers)when transitioning from authoritarian govt. not authoritarian OR democratic. (Successor states to SOVIET UNION) Transition Paradigm by Carothers- basically that no authoritarian elites had interest in implementing democratic institutions because it would dilute their power**. The failure of govts. To deliver basic services that people demand from them was a category of concern. THE FAILURE TO DELIVER ON THE PROMISE DEMOCRACY POSES IS THE GREATEST CHALLENGE TO LEGITIMACY OF SUCH POLITICAL SYSTEMs. Orange Revolution – Ukraine pg 5. Latin America- highest level of economic inequality… class hierarchies respond to racial and ethnic ones. - Persistent poverty breeds social dysfunctions: gangs, narco trafficking, and general feeling of insecurity. - Failure to effectively deal with problems that threaten basic institutions and state undermine the LEGITIMACY OF DEMOCRACY. - Corruption of democratic politics in India is nothing like Chinas quick and efficient decision making. - China is not constrained by rule of law OR democratic accountability. - Broad source of political anxiety concerns the economy. - Global capitalism =productive+ wealth creating but it cannot AVOID high levels of * volatility in financial sector. - Free markets are necessary to promote long term growth but are not SELF REGULATING. - “The systems instability is a reflection of political failure because it’s the failure to provide sufficient regulatory oversight at both national and international levels.” - Market countries perform well based on their participation in global capitalism - The political job of finding right regulatory systems to tame capitalism VOLATILITY …haven’t been found. - Political decay occurs when political systems don’t adjust to changing circumstances. Humans=rule following by nature, conform to social norms…give those rules absolute value and meaning. When surrounding environmental changes take place…a disjunction between existing institutions+present needs. Institutions are supported by legions of ENTRENCHED STAKEHOLDERS who oppose any fundamental change. US constitutions prevents govt. excersising tyrannical control The USA’s debt on both personal and governmental levels threaten American power around world. *American political system should facilitate formation of consensus instead of contributing to problem. *** -Congress=polarized=passing of legislation=difficult this in return equals broad homogenization of neighborhoods +regions DEMOCRACY IS GOOD… people should defend their interests but what happens when no ones interests can be challenged? Rising anger, a social reality at odds with the countries own legitimating principles. Rates of intergenerational mobility lower than what americans think them to be. Industries use political muscle to dismantle regulation* - when a society fails to confront major fiscal crisis through SERIOUS INSTITUTIONAL REFORM- they resort to short term fixes that erode and corrupt their own institutions. Ie; French monarchy after failure of GRAND PARTI. - Quick fixes: giving in to stake holders and interest groups that represented elites..failure to balance countries budget led to bankruptcy and delegitimization of the states…and terminated in the French Rev. - FANTASIES OF STATELESSNESS Worries of authoritarian backsliding in Russia to corruption in india to failed states in developing world…to entrenched interest groups in contemporary American politics. - Anxieties of CREATING, MAINTAINING…EFFECTIVE political institutions…govts that are - * accountable - *simultaneously powerful - *rule bound - ideas are important to political order; PERCIEVED legitimacy of govt that BINDS population together and makes them willing to accept its authority. - -democracy looks right in world opinion- prestige - authoritarian have to stage elections and manipulate media to legitimize themselves. (pretend to be democrats) - govt that is accountable and effective
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