Lecture #3.doc

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Victoria College Courses
Lisa Steele

September 24, 2012 Lecture #3 - Art exhibition review due next Monday - include name, student #, day of the week of your tutorial/TA’s name on the first page - Look on FADIS for examples of art reviews - Citing something from the galleries - cite that; look at Cornell Uni. citation guidelines - Luigi Russolo - Risveglio di una Citta (Awakening of a City), 1913 - Russolo was one of the main theorists of Futurism - Made his own instruments: intonarumori - Picasso & Cubism - Demoiselles d’Avignon - 180 degree view - Collage - piece of paper becoming a bottle - Strangeness = what they wanted viewers to consider - our world is strange (1913) Battle of the Somme: July 1-November 21, 1916 - WWI: July 1914 - 1916 = Somme - bloodiest in history - 1919 - 10 million people died as a result of WWI - 1918 - Spanish flu - 21.5 million people (1%) died - World turned upside down Shell shock - Verdun - Crippled bodies & minds - Shell shock & physical injury affected a large number of soldiers - Artists at the time = living in the world, some had served - Avant garde = (originally military term) spearhead of an action//applied to poetry, drama, artistic moments - German Expressionism, French Cubism, Orphism, Russian Futurism = all avant garde artists all break of the past (or breaking something) - Responding to the time period in some way: social, cultural, political response - art, music, writing Futurism: - Italian movement - Marinetti - 1909 - Launched via Manifesto - Celebration of war, destruction, pollution, speed; art is cruelty & injustice - Beauty exists in struggle - Marinetti revolutionized typography; Cubists used textual references - bits of newspaper in collage; inclusion of text had never been done before in art - Words in freedom - different typefaces, some done by hand - Zang Tumb Tumb Futurist manifesto 1914 - writing about battle ofAdrianopoli (Turkey) which he volunteered in; onomatopoeia used to express sounds of war => revealing what being in the middle of the war was like via poetry - War = vitalistic dynamism; love of danger, fearlessness - He wanted to bring society down - Futurism = caused Fascism; Mussolini was a Futurist at first - Premier Record Works in Freedom 1914: war, fast cars - Giacomo Balla - Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash - 1912 - depiction of light, movements, and speed - you can see the movement of legs - Velocity of Automobile Noises of Light 1914 - Balla; - Mercury Passing before the Sun as Seen through a Telescope 1914 - similar to some abstraction found in Cubism - Mechina typographica - mimicking typewriter noises - Horses don’t have 4 legs while galloping, they have 20 => movement passes through the retina & it confuses the eye - Eadweard Muybridge - Galloping Horse - new possibilities in the camera - Nude descending a staircase 1912 - Marcel Duchamp - mimicking the camera - All inspired by Muybridge - concept of movement inspired people around the time - Antonio Bragaglia - Greetings! - high-speed photographs - time exposure to capture movement - still camera but you can see blurred movement - destruction of form by motion; Futurists wanted to capture image as it travels through space - Bragaglia - the futurist painter Giacomo balla - Balla and his famous painting of the dog - artist appears as a ghost - Bragaglia - Self Portrait,Artist Changing Position - Futurists may have inspired Synthetic Cubism - more colorful, textual elements brought in (away from monochrome) => these things happen because artists saw other artists’work and got inspired - ***draw timeline of movements*** - Charge of Lancer - Umberto Boccioni 1915 - same year Italy joined WWI - armed soldier on horseback = primitive but very advanced, deep ideas - WWI = brought new war technology such as tanks and airplanes (though generals weren’t taught to use them until 1915); still charged, rose on horseback - Forces of the street - Boccioni - industrialization blurted day and night; electric lighting; Henri Bergson - simultaneity of experience - individual consciousness moves, changes all the time, exists in multiple locations - Dislocation & dismemberment of objects = embrace & opening of Bergson’s ideas of simultaneity - Unique forms of continuity of space - Boccioni = use of plains, opening of the mouth - like Demoiselles, similar to Cubism - Intonarumori - Russolo = celebrates art of machines, inspired audio art - 19 century = silence; invention of machine = sound was born - Destruction of institutions of the past - Formation of avant-garde movements - dramatic impact of new technologies - Rupture and discontinuity produced by the political upheavals of war, polarization of societies along ideological lines, and forced migrations Suprematism - Kazimir Malevich - influenced by Futurism - strong movement in Russia - One movements inspires another - Malevich - play of light, movement, simultaneous consciousness - Founded Suprematists’movement: beginning = right before WWI (started in 1913); 1917 Bolshevik Revolution - Suprematism = intellectual and spiritual - Malevich: Futurists = like prisoner in chains; gave up the nude figure (primary go-to subject as an artist) and glorified the machine; said Suprematism was the new Realism in painting; construction of forms from nothing, right out of your mind - Stream reduction of form - visual phenomena of objective world (e.g. Painting a tree) = meaningless - Feeling = significant - Non-objective of representation, supremacy of pure feeling - Hand-painted, not machine-painted - Post-Russian Revolution: gained prominence, state-sanctioned art - Paintings salon-style: paintings from ceiling to floor in any order - 1924: death of Lenin; replaced by Stalin in 1927 - Policies of art changed - abstract art = decline of bourgeois culture => dramatically suppressed - Figurative art instead Constructivism - Tatlin - Picasso 3D - Experimented with abstract relief sculpture - glass, metal, wire, wood - State-sanctioned art - Using real materials in real space
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