Lecture #6.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria College Courses
Lisa Steele

October 22, 2012 Pop Art - 1955 LawrenceAllway first used the term “pop art” - Part of independents movement - Pop art = reaction toAbstract Expressionism (American movement)- anti-realist, action painting (psyche rather than outside world) - Reaction to age of technology, pop culture, beginning of postmodern - Pop culture = product of Industrial Revolution and following technological revolution; fashion, democratic realism, everyday - British, but product ofAmerican culture/mass media: sex, automobiles, food - Urban and contemporary - Eduardo Paolozzi - Scottish, influenced by Surrealism - 1952 - was founding member of Independent Group in England - Bunk 1947 - newspaper clippings => development of pop art - Asingle exhibition will launch a movement - This Is Tomorrow - Richard Hamilton also part of Independent Group - studied fine art and advertising => many artists who became canonical artists in PopArt were trained in advertising - Independent Group met regularly & discussed how technology affects contemporary art (Dadaists thought strongly about technology) - Just What is it That Makes Today’s Homes So Different. So Appealing? - first piece of pop art - was at entrance to exhibit - Jackson Pollack painting commoditized in background - PopArt - preexisting images from advertising, photos etc.; emphasis of flatness - No distinction between good and bad; mass-produced and no “high” and “low” art - British &American PopArt developed independently from one another - Not so much travel post-WWII in Britain - struggling economy - Obsession with things American post-war in Britain => desire for machoism, brand-name products & clothes - Glorifying and sending up aboutAmericanism - Not saying things were good or bad, they’re just there - Illusion and image making - When you reproduce something that’s printed, you get dots (think comic books) - $he - desirability and commodification of female body - Hamilton - screen print as method for artistic representation - My Marilyn - the artist didn’t do anything to it but arrange it => only arranged photos, overprinted etc. and used Marilyn Monroe’s X’s - PopArt = positive Dada => creative rather than destructive - P.227 of textbook - Duchamp quote; Duchamp is nervous of PopArt - doesn’t think they’re serious and based on same intentions as he had when making “ready-mades” - PopArt = absence of commitment to subject, performance-type events => look gimmicky; not politicized like Dadaism - Dada = opposition to bourgeois culture; anti-art - Post-WWII = lots of wealth, mass-produced consumerism => pro-bourgeois - British attraction to Americanism and reflection on that attraction - PopArt = positive response to new wealth, prosperity - Not anarchistic, not rejection of world => embraced world of mass media, consumer culture - Questioned line between art and consumerism - Ambivalence = attraction to and repulsion of something; mixed-feelings - Pop = archaeology of mass-produced myths = investigation of popular design, the machine - Fashion - critical to consumer economy; democratization: everyone has the right to consume mass-produced goods - Pop Culture = economic process; goes out of style quicker than it wears out; novelty & impact - Jasper Johns - influence of painterly abstraction like Hamilton - Encaustic = painting with melted wax & pigment => translucent surface - Densely textured => likeAbstract Expressionism - Pure emotive abstraction => banal pop art - Shift to the object - Mass-production - Aesthetics of ordinary objects = not thought of because we’re used to just the familiarity, utility - Worked in display advertising - Assemblage = 3D collage; gluing and welding (definition of FADIS) - Sculpture = not primarily done in Abstract Expressionism - Sculpture = very important to PopArt - Robert Rauschenberg = found objects; Neodada - Taking goat off the wall & putting it upright, putting a tire around it => combination of objects - Combines = paintings but other objects enlisted as well to gradually construct the piece; new art form that broke down barriers between art and sculpture - Magical Combine Painting = collage/assemblage = blur between art and everyday things - Abstract Expressionist influence = e.g. dripping brush strokes - Ed Kienholz = no formal art training; did a variety of jobs - Moved to LA=> huge impact on him to create art - Similarity of materials that artists used at the time - Unaware of east coast works; didn’t have art training so he missed out on some things - Explosion of mass media = allowed artists to think independently from one another - Roxys = Las Vegas WWII brothel recreation; life-sized - Five Dollar Billy - figurative sculpture; female on mechanical sewing machine that moves up and down => use of women’s bodies through prostitution; felt strongly against it - The State Hospital - horrific representation of psychiatric care => came from personal knowledge of being a nurse in psychiatric hospital - Spoke about underclass - prison inmates, psychiatric patients at mercy of keepers - Portable War Memorial - life-sized figures, coke machine, furniture => opposed Vietnam War - Used familiar objects - USAwas very divided in foreign wars, politics - Colored in galvanized steel - Chalk writing = names of countries that don’t exist because of wars - Patriotism with commercialism - Living comfortably at home while wars are going on overseas - Sincerity of his political position - Back Seat Dodge ’38 - vulnerability of private life to intervention to society, social conventions -
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