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University of Toronto St. George
Victoria College Courses
Kenneth Bartlett

09/ 13/12 Lecture One: Intro • Italic and Savin (or something like that, though the book refers to the etruscatins and latins) tribes met on two of the main hills to trade (palatine and I think it was Aven- tine hills) • Rome probably founded as a trading center for these (and other warring) tribes in about 800 BC • Likely began development on the Palatine Hill due to the protection provided by the marsh (later became the Forum) • Kings of Rome were Etruscan; later overthrown to create dynamic new society for Rome and wealthy families • Civil wars in 1st century BC (referring to the wars of power first with Julius Caesar (against two others who had previously aided him) and then with Octavian or as he came to be know Augustus (against the two men who had aided him in maintaining power) • Augustus used the title: Princeps (meant first among equals) •Made the caesarship into more of a monarchy (Tiberius pretty much made it fully a monarchy) Beginning with Constantine the city shifted from military, legal, economic etc center to • a religious center • Pope wearing red shoes: authority of the Emperor in the west and the city (red shoes where a representation of monarchy I believe but I forget where) -Importance of looking at Rome as a living idea: mystical luminous place 09/ 20/ 12 Lecture Two: The Ancient City and Its Survivals • Rome is an idea with deep roots, and needed justification for everything. • Ancient Roman, Renaissance and Modern day are all connected. • Rome is said to be founded in 6th century BC. • It started out looking like huts with iron. • Later it would become the leader of the Western world. • The Etruscan Kings began to constructed walls around Rome. • The walls were build by Tullius Secrius = called the Sercius walls. • The Roman Forum is extremely marshy. • 600 BC, Tarquinius Prisums and his son Supalas were the ones who created the Great Sewers. • This great sewer is still used to day. • There is also a goddess of the sewers. It never collapsed. The ancient Roman ex- ists are still there. • The city could not grow if they did not have this to get rid of human and animal wastes. • Or they could not build their huge baths as well. • The bathes were always used and they were self cleansing. They had 11 central bathes in the city. • Politics: The Capitoline, the central building was the center of humanist and politics who would meet here. • T. Livius in 753 BC wrote in this building. • This is also were the Romans and Latin’s would meet and sell and trade in this building. • The political associations and legal discussions made in the open air. Popular means ie. democracy. • The Tar peiam rock was were the criminals would be thrown off from. • In the year 300 BC Roman was a huge flourishing city, slightly compared to British cities. • Colosseum takes its name from Colossus meaning large building and “Nero” one of the king of Rome. • If you are looking at an Ariel view of the city today, you will still notice all the buildings that were used in the Renaissance are still used in present day. • The Cirus Maximums is still there and used for soccer matches. • The great bathes • The Theaters of Pompi • Agrapa is the who builded the Pantheon. • The idea of the complex of Rome. • The Roman Forum was the centre of life - political, economic, social, etc. • Some of the buildings survived and others did not. It did until the 11th AD cause that is when it came down. • Juno Maniro is a god who had a temple in the Forum. • Temple of Saturn is still there as well. • Business did not have offices, they would set up their shops on the steps of the Basili- ca. • When people had trials they would wait around and play games. The Basilica was also a place of trials. • Curia = the Senate house is still there. It was re-build by Julius Caesar. • Drascuri = the dark gods, they are twins (horse tamers) protect Rome. • Umbillaus mundi = the belly button of the world. • No matter how North, West, East, South of Rome you were this was the center. • Vestal Virgins = were the daughters of the most powerful men and they were sent away at the age of 5 and had to stay virgins until they were 35. • They could leave if they wanted after 35 and if they stayed they would be honored. • This was like a woman priest hood. • All they did was clean the house, keep the flame going. • They had their own box in the Colosseum and they can be buried in the cities walls like the emperors. • The rosterum = beck of the bird, a long platform anytime a they won a battle they would take the bronze off the front of the ship. • This was also the platform they would speak at. At this time Roman was a republic, the members in the senate had to be elected. • • Brutus’s relative is the one who started the Republic • Brutus’s is the one who overthrew Julius Caesar who declared himself emperor for life. Augustus declared Caesar a god after he was stabbed and burned. • • Augustus lived very simply, and just build a big house in Captionline. It was not grand enough for his successors, so they kept building and building. Constantine and Mexinetus created what would be the model for St. Peter’s and • early railway stations. • The colons were huge and used at other places. • The Tradum Forum had window front shops. • Tradum had slaves come in and shovel down the hill to one line. • This was the grandfather of malls. • The battle against Palestine led to making of a wall from the battle and how the Jews were pushed out from Jerusalem and the destroyed temple of Solum. • The Temple of Mars the Avenger is where the pictures of foreign temples were put here. In 410 BC the city was sacked and all the treasures were taken. • • Somewhere in the South of Italy all the treasures from this temple are buried there. • The building of the theater was not necessary until plays became a religious act. Theater of Pompi is where Julius Caesar was assassinated. Now a restaurant • named Alle grotte del Teatodi Pompeao is on top of the old theater. • The Timber Island is shaped like a boat and they made it look like a boat as well. Fouro Bellario is where the butcher shops are and best preserved temples of the re- • public. • The temple of Manly Fortune (Fortuna), Mussolini really liked the name and did not want it to be changed • The best preserved building is the Pantheon. • Complex of bathes, libraries and faith. • It was created by Agripa (he’s name is above as well). • It was build in the Campio Marzio. • Hadrian fixed the Pantheon had the abandonment of Rome. • This was the temple to all the planetary gods. • When the sun would shine through the whole in the top would shine on one god when it coordinates with the zodiac sign. Other names are Saint Mary of Martyrs. • • All burials were all cremations and outside of city walls. • Augustus wanted the link to the Etruscans so he build an Etruscan tomb in the walls and cyrus trees were around it. It was used as a theater. • • The Golden house of Nero (in the 1490s AD) was found by a lot diggers. • This house was huge and had all the treasures of the world. They hit and empty space (Grotte) in the Golden house. • • They would dig near the gardens of the bathes. • Pope Leo 10th gave Raphael the job to go down and see the Golden House, and he saw nothing elegant at all. It was grotesque the place. • • The Colosseum was built all day in about 10 years that fit 50,000 people. • It can be emptied in about 15 minutes. • It also had a retractable roof, and it made out of silk. • The only amphitheater were gladiators died and the games were till the 5th century BC. • The Arch of Constantine was the arch of Rome cultural, Rome had no money at this time so he took parts for other arches. • Greek and Latin Libraries near the bathes, also a gym and garden. • The bathes of Constantine were not the largest but they were the most elegant. The Temple of Serapes is the most famous, the Egyptian Princess who was brought • to Rome. • The entrance to the city, has tombs to them. Most of the gates to the city are original. 09/ 27/ 12 Lecture Three: Christian Rome The movement from pagan Rome to empire Rome • -The relationship between the gods and earth and the fundamental change that was brought by the emperor Constantine. • Constantine, was a weird guy. He defeated his half brother Maxentius Milvian Bridge outside Rome in 313 AD to support the Christian God. • He was Christian through his mother St.Helen. • He told his mother if he won the battle against his half brother he would become a Christian. • He legitimized Christianity but he never became Christianity until his death bed. He did it because the empire was faring, high taxes and attacks from Barbarians. • • The solution was to use this new mystery cults as a new sign of the empire to raise it up again. • The standard pagan religion of Rome was dying down. He though Christianity would bring a new ideological rule to Rome. • Restore confiscated property and civil rights to Christians. • He had then to take this new ideological role he had to connect it with the tradi- tions and practices. And Peter was going to be the foundation of the church. • St. Peter was the first bishop of Rome. • Peter was crucified in Rome and this was an added luster to this city. • He died in Rome and now he is the Saint of Rome. • He may have been the leader of the Christian community in Rome. • Christianity was a soldier, women and slave religion. In the early church it let wom- en in and a place for them. • The connection between Rome and St.Peter was central and needed to be played more on for the empire of Constantine. • The connection of the Vatican Hill on the other side of the Tiber was a place for St.Peter was buried. There was a little shrine there as well. Rome law it was nobility, virginal virgins oth- • er special cases to be buried in the walls of the city, and others to be cremated outside the city ie the poor. • The Christians did not cremate there died and they buried the whole body. Under the Basilica of St.Peter there was a burial cemetery. • Christianity was a minority religion, pagans thought they were weird and did not understand their religion. • The cult of St.Peter came close to the practice of early Christianity. • These people were corrupting the empire by not accepting the empire and wor- shipping him. • They were crucified before this and they were driven underground so they can fur- ther continue their practices and bury their died and not cremate them. • These catacombs were meant to celebrate a persons life when they are dead. • Christianity is a death cult because when you die is when you resurrected. • On the year if the death of the person there would be the refricerium a party to celebrate the soul to heaven on his tomb stone. • You would leave memories that you were there and celebrated the person’s death. • The families would be buried together in the same catacombs. • They had symbols put they did not what to show they were Christian symbols. • The city was jammed and Christian practice had to find a spot to move up ground. • They would meet in house churches. You could not give them pagan temples, and recycle them. The Romans decided to use the Basilica (used to be used for a mar- ket place). •This gave Constantine the chance to build more Christian basilicas, he build them in random places, that corresponded with Christian moments. Executions were not in the city but the outside except in the Colosseum those executions were part of the games. • Where is the bishop of Rome going to leave, the center of Christianity. • The bishop is the person who sits in the cathedra the person who is the successor of St.Peter. Constantine discussed with the Christian leaders where it should be. • • They said right up against the outside walls of the city. • The palace of the Lateran property of his wife was going to give this palace to the Christians. • It is called St.John de Laterano. Where is the bishop going to leave and gave the building next to it as well. • St. Peter is the pilgrimage church and St.John is where the bishop gives mass, lives and is the central church. He did at times deliver mass and St.Peter. • The cathedral becomes the new center of the Catholic church. • St. John Lateran was buried down three times, and all bishops wanted to leave their mark on the mother church. • The other church was St.Paul, who said he was a Roman citizen. He was executed for treason because he refused to accept the empire. • The basilica to him was buried down in the fifteenth century and was rebuild as an early Christian church and there was a fountain some people had to wash before going into the church-especially women. The development of pagan decorations and design and then we see Christianity • just take over it. • The Costanza Moslem was named after Constantine's named Costanza and she was a devoted Christian and wanted her moslem to be next to St.Agnes. • With the end of empiral rule, the only one capable of doing anything was the Pope. • He took over what was left of Rome. • About the year of 337AD, Constantine came down with leprosy when he wanted to move to Constantinople. The Pope Sylvester prayed to God and Constantine was cured and went to Con- • stantinople and gave the Roman empire to the Pope and he ruled the West. • In the year 410 AD Rome was attacked and sacked by the Gauls. • They occupied until the early sixth century • Byzantine forces tired to recapture the city in 536 AD and they cut the aqueducts. • It was after this that under the papal rule of Pope St. Gregory the Great (590 - 604) that Constantine's innovation for the Christian Church came to the city’s rescue. • Justinain rebuild the structure of Rome, he used different forms for his buildings. • Cities are consumers of food, not producing it. There were roads, aqueducts to get food, etc. • The barbarians destroyed the aqueducts (by the fifth century), and Rome began to get smaller. • The barbarians were not interested in anything of Rome. • Power moved from the Forum and Palatine headquarters of the Roman clergy. • The Council of Ephesus in 431 had recognized Mary as the “Mother of God” and this monumental church commemorated and in its mural program illustrated this role. • Rome went from one million people to 2500 people. • Pagan temples, other buildings were left abandoned. • The church to Damian and Cosmos (the physicians saints) was built on the old fo- rum on the way into the city. • Prassede was a sixth century church with eighth century mosaics, it was a parish church and it was small (showing how small the population was getting). • St. Prassede and St. Pudentiana were virgin sisters who dedicated their lives to comforting and providing burial for those who suffered martyrdom for the fate. • St. Cecilia vowed in childhood to remain a virgin. • When her father insisted that she marry a pagan named Valerius she persuaded Valerius to embrace Christianity and a life of celibacy. • Together with his brother Tiburtius, the three performed acts of charity like other early Roman Saints, they looked after the burial of Christians. • Rome was full of buildings called Martirium buildings that were build to people who are died. • Only two Roman churches that have the mass said in Greek. • The Jewish Cemetery which once overlooked the Circus Maximus and has since been relocated. Other non-Catholic including such notables as Keats are buried under the shadow • of the Pyramid of Cestius near Porta San Paolo in what is usually known as the Protestant cemetery. • Rome during this time was a dangerous one. Scholarship and Christian scholarship was still highly looked at and worked on dur- • ing this time. • Rome was a place of people still came for the centre of the church, place of the mind and memory, and a place of power and education. • The medieval monks would come and would keep Rome alive and change it in a different way. • All roads did led to Rome. • Even during the dark ages Rome was still the cosmopolitan city. • In the 8th century we see a lot of people from England coming to Rome. • Everybody wanted to be close of the imperial places of Christendom in Rome, which was spiritual and powerful. • Rome was a magnet for the faith full. • It led to economic growth, and a whole industry developed because of the pilgrims coming to the church. • Rome became a service city during the middle ages. • Some of the pilgrims would stay in Rome. • They would bring their own culture, and national places would be build. • Rome was a dangerous city, because of all the people coming through the city. • Prostitutes and criminals (thefts) were high in Rome during the middle ages. • The changes were brought by St. Dominic in the 13th century and the only one gothic church. • St. Francis who changed Christendom and got a church named after him. Classical base. • The city also became a place for noble families who fought one an other. • When we think of Rome before the fourteenth century, we see an usual place who grow up. • A city that was led by a pope, noble families who fought, place of pilgrimage, dan- gerous place. • In Roman churches, the most obvious signs of medieval interventions are cos- matesque floors, a paschal candlestick and a ciborium over the main altar. • Cosmatesque floors are marble mosaics built up of reused materials carefully combined in geometries of intersecting squares and circles. • Similar inlays are found on the many white marbling spiraling Easter candlestick in Roman churches. This is early Christian Rome. • 10/ 04/ 12 Lecture Four: The Babylonian Captivity and Schism 1305-1417 • The issue of violence a raised, no authority • The population decreased to less than a million • Imported art and archit from Tuscany and Umbria • Why did the Pope leave Rome and go to Avignon. • In the year 1300, Boniface VIII was a man of great ambitious mostly for the church. • The Pope can do whatever he wanted and was above the kings, queen etc. • He has a huge ego - thought he was Christ on earth. • He made enemies and one enemy was King Philippe of France. • The agent of the King of France slug Boniface, it weakened the Pope and the papacy because Boniface did not like what Philippe wanted to do (tax the papa- cy). Boniface as very humiliated, the nobles in the town of Rome thought they can act • more out and cause chaos. • The cardinals thought they could solve the problem by getting a French Cardinal. • He did not like what was going on in Rome with the violence and he felt that the best solution to get away from the violence, chaos and the anti-French. • The church had become centralized during the Dark Ages. • By 1309 the offices followed the Pope to Avignon because it was clam and quiet. • They started to build a palace there. • For about 70 years Avignon was the center of Christendom. • Petrarch took the metaphor of the Babylon capacity, of what the Pope took the church to Avignon. • The creation of the romantic love was by Petrarch the combination of the Italian cultural and that of South of France. • Some people liked him, others did not. • Because Petrarch liked to be alone some Popes thought he was up to no good. • The 1340s was the worst, fall of the banks (economy) and then the black death. • The black death hit Italy first. • There was no real civic government to stop the nobles from fighting in the streets or the rule of law and security • Cola di Rienzo is a truly remarkable guy, born the son of the notary. • He became a lawyer and notary. • He impressed everyone. • He went to Avignon to get a job from the Pope, the Pope wanted him to be the am- bassador of Rome to fix the violence. • He agreed to it because his younger brother died in a friendly fire from the nobles fights. • He went to the ruins of the Capitoline Hill, he gave a speech dressed in full ar- mor saying I am declare war on the nobles and resort the Roman Empire to the Republic. Petrarch was his biggest admire -1350 - 54 were remarkable years for Rome. • • He had an ego, he started to believe what people said to him. • He was triumph of the people. • He lived in the palace of the Crescenzi. He started dressing in gold robes, he became an egomaniac and he offended the • Roman nobility. • Stefano Colonna put together and army of nobles and thugs and get through the gate that goes through Trivolvi and attacked Rienzo (he lacked common sense). • Colonna knew he was up to no good. • Rienzo finally realized the people were against him because he taxed them. • The mob killed him in 1354. • It ended the experiment of the Popes being in Avignon. The hundred years war was going on during this time as well. • • It took the preaching of two female Saints Bridget of Sweden and Catherine of Sienna (a movement in Italy that would require the Popes to leave Avignon). • In 1377 Pope Gregory the XI decided to finally bring the papacy back to Rome. When he returned the offices and cardinals were gone. • • The city was in shambles. • He died in 1378. • The only hope they had to save Rome was to have the church • The cardinals elected an Italian pope, Pope Urban the VI. • He was of very strong character and believed he was right and Christ on earth. • The French cardinals did not like him. • They became angry with Urban because they did not want to give up their lavish lifestyle. • They got Urban kicked out said they did not really pick him. They elected one of their own this led to the Great Schism 1378 - 1417. • • -There were two Popes one in Rome and Avignon - it caused a huge struggle for Christendom. • This was problems for Rome, no money to be resorted. • The quality of life was another problem. • In the city of Piazza in 1409 the cardinals from both colleges, they deposited both Popes, and elected one of there own. • Now there are 3 Popes. • John Hus said the church should own no property, they should marry etc other things. • Sisimund thought he had to do something because of the Kingdom of Bo- hemian was problems (that is were Hus was from). • Thousands of Czechs were going to follow Hus who was going to have their own church. Sisimund made a deal with the John the 23rd that if he supports Sismund • deposing all 3 popes. • All John wanted was wealth and to be remembered. • At Constance in 1414-17 is when the Emperor Sismund and the councils of the church - popes, cardinals and nobles. They invited Hus to reason, they set him on fire. • • In 1417 one pope was finally elected, the choice was a member of the Colona family Martin V. • He had a power base in Rome and a palace to leave in Rome. • The council it had shown it was superior to the church. • Martin V was lacking theology but personally it was a good call. • He returned home on 1920 - 33 and he started to restore the city. • The papacy was finally united. • How was Martin V going to rebuild Rome? • Recognizes his authority, one single papal bureaucracy, get money from the church. • He was more of an administrator than spiritual leader. He rebuilt the churches that the pilgrims came to, and that the church lessened to • him. • The nobles were not so happy the Pope was back, his family named was bad and good. • Conciliarism = a body of the faithful had authority and spiritual, papal monarchy. • The popes argued they are chosen by God. Martin V admitted he was chosen by the body of the faithful. • • The council could depose the pope, there were reviews on the pope etc. • The papacy may have been reunited to the city but it was not like the way it was before. Martin V had to sign the document of Frequens, basically the pope is re- • viewed etc to make sure the Schism would not happen again. • There were no roads, palace for the Pope did not exist. • Offices of the state could not be filled because the population declined. • He had to get people from other places. • Rome’s character became more cosmopolitan, a city of foreign to survive the church. • Rome did not have much an indegious population. • People of the same language would group together. • It was hard to have a single cultural. • These communities living separately in a single city. • Laws were placed to benefit the church, not the city. • The church did not want priest to marry so they could not give the land (the money they got from the church) to be assed down to their heirs. • No one wanted to invest money in rebuilding the city. • Fix the old builds, the major churches were repaired but the rest of the city was left. Working with what they had. • • Return of the papacy did not solve the problem, just a structure. • Buildings repaired no new ones built. • Foreigners were poor, come with nothing. • Every nationality had a hospice. • Little economic activity, no transportation. • Many pilgrims were men, a city of men. • Wealthy men or everyone else. • Violent. • Prostitutes in Rome was high, they fell in two groups high end and the ones who serviced the poor. • Brothel’s were by nationality. They did not last long in this job and they would get married. • • City of shallow roots in the community, nobles, foreigners etc. (basically random people). • Rome developed organically. • It has no center (economic, political authority). 10/ 11/ 12 Lecture Five: The Renaissance Comes To Rome • With the papacy gone, Rome was no longer the center of a religious world. • The population declined, and the return of the papacy lead to the Schism and there was still no increase in the wealth, and population. In 1377 the problem was not solved, until the 1420 we see one pope and the re- • construction of one head and the recovery of Rome and the Renaissance Rome we see today. • The ideas and principles When Martin V came in 1420 everyone was happy to have one single papacy • back. He made some contributions but they pointed to the future of Rome. •Since there was no need for art because there was no money, an idengious school of art. •Unlike the other Italian cities ie. Venice • Also no need to celebrate Rome as the capital of the world because buildings were not needed. •Martin V knew he needed to use art and culture to the reconstruction of Rome •The space of St. Catherine of Alexandra shows the return of art to Rome and the beginning of Renaissance art. MartinV got Masaccio and Masolino to work on this chapel. Single a desire to use these new forms of art and culture in Rome, 3rd dimension on 2d forms. • Eugene IV in 1439 succeeded Martin V who had died. • He continued bringing Florentine art and culture to Rome. • Going to have a Florentine artist bring gold doors to St.Peter. • Filarete was the artist who brought these gold doors to the new church. • On the door we see a picture of St.Pete giving keys to Eugene IV to show he is the ruler of earth and the rise of papal power and they are only subjected to power from Christ and God and they are the successor to St.Peter the first pope of Rome. • On the doors there is a picture of the council of Constantine and showing Constan- tine and how he united Christendom and founded Constantinople. • The council of Florence came, there were Greek scholars. • One of them was Cardinal Bessarni and he was brought in the church, Greek studies was absent from Rome. • Vigna were little villages in the walls and Bessarni built one. Indicates he was putting down roots in Rome in a traditional way. • • You would grow your vines ie. olives, grapes, etc make wine, sit and read with friends. • They were close to your house so you can walk. • If you had money you would built one of these. • 1447 - 55 Pope Nicholas V, was the son of a doctor, close friend to Cosmo de Medici. • He was a humanist, and he was going to bring the ways of Florentine to Rome. More greek manuscripts were copied, to restore learning and make Rome a center • of education and make Rome the center of the world. • He believed if Rome was going to grow and recover, it had to look like a capital with art and culture. • Francelgo painted in the house of the pope in the new palace. Move to the head quarters of the church to the place where St.Peter is buried. • • He is the one who beings the Vatican. • In the new palace there was a small chapel that the pope went to pray and Franceglo painted for him. • Nicholas V saw the problems of the church of St.Peter right away,it was ruined, marshy soil. Nicholas V had Alberti come from Florence he was an architect and told Nicholas V the church was going to fall down. • He rebuild the apps of the church and did nothing else, and started a process that would led pulling down old St.Peter and building a new one. • All the aquatics were broken by the barbarians in the 500s, and the only water was from the Timber (which was dirty). • New aquatics needed to be fixed to get clean water. • The aqua virga was the virgin water and it was the first one rebuild. For the first time in thousands years had fresh water. • • The Mostra of the aquatics means show of water, and it is the Trevi Fountain (end of the aquatics) (Alberti created it), smaller pipes lead to other smaller foun- tains. • Nicholas V was a great pope, paved streets, reconstructed St.Peter and found the Vatican library. • Pius II was a humanist, created a number of genres, he was a writer, a poet. • They thought the tradition of Nicholas V would be connected with him. • The fall of Constantinople, by the Turks. • Pius II tried all he could to do a crusade to get Constantinople back and he did not do much in Rome. • He did one thing in Rome, the benediction of the pope to he world (urbiet orbi). Center of the Christian world. • He did hire a bunch of humanist from Tuscany to the church order. • Paul II was interested in jewels, fine objects not education / learning. • He was a show off. He had a bad rep cause he fired all the humanist scholar, people with to much ed- • ucation not practical and cost to much. • He had bad press for ever. He build his palace near the Forum and Trevi Fountain. • He was from Venice and given the church of St. Mark. • He did not want to live in the Vatican. • So he used the church of St. Mark as his grand palace. • First renaissance palace built in Rome, it had a tower because it still was a me- dieval city but you can see the comings of Renaissance decorations. • Plazzo Venica shows that things can be built new and you did not have to reuse old buildings and take parts from others. We see the population growing again. • Parts of the city that were abandoned or poor became interesting new neighbor- hoods. • Ie. The ghetto were the Jews lived who have been there for thousands of years. The city is starting to recognize its ancient roots and preserves them and celebrate • and use them as decorated elements. • Paul II made a statement that new buildings can be build and preserving the ancient roots. • Sixus IV is one of the greatest the pope’s, huge ambitious but also had an ego, capi- talize on the pilgrims. • The solution to get to St.Peter was to build a bridge across the Timber. • It was built for the jubilee of 1575. His big job was a new papal chapel, he liked things that were really big. • • He did not just want to connect with St.Peter and the connections of the papal past. • He had his chapel the Sistine chapel built on the old ruins of Nicholas VI palace. • He brought great artists from Tuscany and Florence to the chapel to paint the old testament. • On one side was the life of Christ and the life of Moses and the connection be- tween them. • He had Bottelli and Michelangelo come and paint. •The decorative schemes was great, he build a library in the papal palace there was a bigger space compared to the small of Nicholas VI. • His family were jerks, the worst was Cardinal Realro who was a gambler, he used his winnings and built the most grandest palace in Rome that was totally Renaissance style called Cancelleria. •We do not know who the architect is. The offices of the church are here. • He founded the first museum since the ancient Romans. • He was obsessed with Rome being recovered. •He changed canon law, that you can decedent your land and wealth to your family once you died. Wealthy clerks started to build palaces. • •Once the people started building they started uncovering ancient statues, so Sixus IV displayed these statues once he took them because the pope owned everything. Innocent the 8th had children and adorned them and no spirituality. • • He just wanted to be close to his family and live life. • He did not leave much in Rome expect for two things:1) the tomb he had made that is in the new Vatican and 2) he wanted a place where he can hang out in the summer, he builds a little villa on top of Vatican hill. • Pope Alexander VI was the successor, richest cardinal in the entire church. • Skimmed money from the church for 35 years and he bought the entire church. • He was guilty of peculation and no sense of chastity and had a mistresses (four kids). • He was not interested in building and art but his family and making the papacy and marrying his kids right. • The son of Alexander named Cheseray was psycho path and a cruel man, he killed his brother Juan, because he did not want to be a cardinal he wanted to be the head of the army. • Julia Farnese was the trophy mistress of the pope she was only 16 she was smart, witty. • She was known as the bride of Christ. • She was from a minor noble family. • Her brother Alessandro was also brought into the church as a cardinal. He became a great pope calling the council of Trent (Paul III). • Alexander VI did make some contributions to Rome, he commissioned Bra- mante to build a little temple to the other side of the Vatican hill to where the Spanish thought St.Peter was really crucified. • Cardinals wanted to be part of the art and remembered. 10/ 18/ 12 Lecture Six: The Imperial Papacy and the City • Nicholas V wanted Rome not just to reflect pagan power but also papacy power. • He paved streets, built the Lataren palace and the repair of the aquatics. • Glorify the church of the head, not just successor to St. Peter, but also Constantine and the emperors. • He died in the 1450s, the papacy went through a number of changes because of characters of the pope. We see the idea of an imperial papacy. • 1503, Julius II becomes pope (nephew of Sixtus IV), he built buildings, and a new church of St. Peter, and a new palace for the pope. • He built a straight street to get to the church of St. Peter, the Via Julia. • Runs directly to the Timber but it does not curve. • There were palaces built along this road. • Ponte Cisto meets the via Julia at a 45 degree angle at the end. • Julius wanted the connection from the cottage on the Vatican hill (Innes the 8th) to connect with the apartments of the Borage. • Cortile del Relvedere is the palace he had created that is part of this whole con- nected area. • The ring of the fisherman (successor of St. Peter) it is made for each pope and once they die it is smashed. • Julius II was given the church S. Pietro in Vincoli (got it when he was a cardinal). • Linked him to the imperial and christian part of the city. • Michelangelo commissioned half of Julius II tombs. • He defined the concept of an imperial papacy. • He died in 1519. • Leo X became the successor of Julius II. • Raphael became the court painter for Leo X, he as the court painter as well for the later half of Julius II’s life. Raphael began painting the individuals closet to the pope. • • Inghirami was appointed librarian by Leo X. • The court of Leo X was kind of neo-paganism. • Inghirami liked dressing up as a women, so he would act in plays and they would call him Fedra. • Ribiena was the almost brother in law of Raphael, but his sister died. • Ribiena was a person of great imagination. Indenigous Roman culture, the pope’s character drove everything. • Pagan elements and charm. He called on Antiono Sagalo to built a papal bank (S. Spirito), administrated by • papal buildings that had nothing of the church. • The papal papacy that went both ways, administrated and also spiritual. Leo X died in 1541. • Powerful reaction to Lutheran rebellion, the moral response. • Adrian VI was the successor, he was the tutor of Charles V. • Rome was afaird of Lutheran and to make peace and make sure thing happened they elected Adrian VI. • Who had never been to Rome, and hated Rome and Rome hated him. • He did like when people talked about him, and basically a disaster for Rome. • Buildings stopped being made, unemployment rose. • Lutheran revolt had an affect on Rome, church did not get money from the places they once did. The church had to get sub sized to help fight the Lutherans. • • Charles V was the emperor during this time and Pope Clement XII was the pope. • Pope Clement XII was the cousin of Julius II • . He could not make up his mind, too smart show the sides of everything. • Church should not chose sides between the emperor and the King of France, Frances I. • The battle was going to fought in Italy, where the power where reside. • Battles were fought back and forth. • 1525 when Frances I and his army was defeated and he was captured by Charles V. • The French army was destroyed and king prisoner. The imperial army was no longer needed and unpaid and led by Charles Bour- • bon (traitor to France). • He told the soldiers to extort money from towns, they soon made it to Rome. • The army just wanted to be paid off by the Pope, they came in May 1527. There was a heavy fog and the soldiers said lets break into the city and still every- • thing. • Bourbon was killed right away and his body laid in the Sistine Chapel. • The city was not defeated, there was no army protecting them. • From the sacking of the German soldiers. • It was aided by some noble families who hated the papacy. • For eight months the city was reduced to rumbles. • Those who tried to hide there property were killed once they said where there properties were. The soldiers broke down buildings to use the doors for fire wood in the winter to • stay warm. • Passetto is where Clement XII ran along this and watched the city being de- stroyed, it led them to the castle Saint Angelo which protected the pope and his court. • Clement XII, after eight months made a deal with Charles V, and Clement XII came back to a destroyed city. • 1527 there is very little that is left because they burned down the gold objects and there are some rements left from the German soldiers. • It changed fashion, Clement XII grew a beard to show his mourning for Rome (this has not been done for thousands of years because popes are supposed to be clean shaven. Growing a beard was related to paganism). • Everything that had been built up, now there was nothing. • Poor nutrition, could not clean the streets, plague and the Timber flooded. • The bodies of dead animals and bodies would rise up onto the streets. The papal were so upset by the sacking they left everything. • • At the end of Clement XII life he had Michelangelo paint the “Last Judgement.” • Paul III, orangized the papal and rebuilding Rome. • The council of Trent, reshaped the Catholic church, redefine the church. • They took on the Protestants. • The Pope is Christ figure on earth and is a monarch of religious faith. • The place of Saints was reaffirmed. • It was not just a theoretical movement but also a rebuild of Rome. • Now there was a new moral authority in the church. • Ignatius of Loyola he put that new moral, he went to Paul III and had a new obeisance to the church and they created the Jesuit order. • The church through Trent was highly centralized. • They moved away from the buildings of the Dominican and Fransecans. •The church they made the church of the Gesiu (mother church of the Je- suit). The classical decoration we see is very much the classical Renaissance and it • is a hall church (one huge room) because the Jesuits were found on preaching, missionary, and teaching. • Right near it was the training school for Jesuit priests. New center for catholic center and power. • • Michelangelo came and went from Rome, he came back from the defeat of Flo- rentine. • We see a difference from the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and the Last Judge- ment (doom and sadness but also old classical Christ). Mood of darkness and the sadness of the sack of Rome and the Protestant ref- • ormation. • Paul III decided he was going to build a palace for protection. • He also had to make statements, and that Rome was being rebuilt and Rome has no center. • The ancient center of the city was Capitoline Hill, and it was Paul III who rebuilt the Capitoline Hill, called the Campiologlio that over looks the Forum. • Now Paul III is connected to the politics. • Built two palaces the Plaza for the senate and the plaza novena. • He built a statue of novena (protecting the center of the world). • The only full sized bronze statue of a man on a horse, Michelangelo put it in the center of the plaza he built. • The rule of Rome and the emperor connected to the papal pap
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