breach of the peace—there is case law that holds that shouting through
a megaphone may trigger violation of the peace. There is also an event
of causing a disturbance—you’ll see that causing a disturbance
includes all kinds of things: you’ll see that causing a disturbance
includes things like shouting, screaming, fighting, singing, or using
insulting or obscene language.
•In the APEC article, by Richard Erikson, the person was arrested on
saying stupid things.
•While the playing field is quite large; there are constraints as well.
•Constraints in Police tactics:
•1) The police organization and culture: police are subjected ao all these
internal rules; subject to internal discipline: operate under much less
•2) Public Opinion: the police view their role and organization in terms
of a service. We said that this whole notion of community policing
really implicates the community. They have to be concerned and in
tune of public opinion. It is the public that pays for their salary.
•3) Wider political culture: complicates the whole scenario. The wider
political culture can restrain a course of action or enable a course of
action. By political culture we say that Canada is a democracy-citizens
have constitutionally rights. All state officials are obligated to facilitate
this right. The wider political culture should serve as a constraint.
Technically, wider political culture asks as a check of what the police
can do. Erikson and Doyle talks about the wider culture—it becomes
an enable of a particular type of police conduct.
•In London, England, there are 3 protests every week; and usually very
peaceful, protest in the UK—all these policies being voted on in the
•Living in democracy does not protect us from brutalness from the
police—seen in G20 summit this summer. We shouldn’t be reassured
that we live in democracy—richard erikson and doyle say that we have
a tendancy that democracy is a zero sum game. You either have one or
you do not. There are times you have more democracy and sometimes
you have less. So the level of freedom is going to be dependent on the
political culture. The existing political culture is crucial into
influencing how police leadership is going to make decisions of how to
control a particular protest.
•E.g. in great Britain, long term trend in less violence; nice long trend of
exchanges of police and the protests; when margarat thratcher—she
sends the message to the police chief—far more forecefully against