•in the case of boys, that is a double experience of separation: learning
independent of the mother; and also learn that they are a different
kind than their mother; they focus on autonomy.
•Girls- have to go through the bump, they feel they are the same as
the mother---they develop sameness, nurturing, reciprocity.
•Something has to break down for the girls being breaked down to being
socialized in these gender roles in order to explain why some commit
•This kind of theory taken by someone called Adler.
•She argues that women’s rate of crime is actually increasing because of
feminism because roles are shifting: as women’s role become less
separated than men—Chunn and Gavingan does not think this is true.
•the last kind of explanation is called structural sociological:
explanation shifts the ground entirely—what is being said here is that
women are socially controlled through different means then men.
Criminal justice system is the social control system ultimately for
males. The status quo is preserved: the powerful is imposed on those at
the bottom. IN the case of women the ones that control them is the
family—controlled by patriarchical family the men are controlling the
women. If that fails, than psychiatry controls them.
•The argument goes two social control mechanisms:
•1) the criminal justice system
•2) psychiatric system aimed at women
•psychiatry then comes this repressive apparatus that is primarily
aimed at gender boundaries.
•The criminal justice system is the complete backstop—havent’ been
successfully controlled by the family; haven’t been controlled by
psychiatry; but then in the end certain crimes againt the gender
boundary—prostitution in the past, the use of contraception and
•One of the argument that has been emphasized; women who are
controlled by psychiatry has typically challenged gender norms: they
arenot acting the ways gender norms required.
•This argument—all of these arguments are highly problematic—lot of
difficulty of role theory-why do we socialized boys and girls differently?
What is the origins of those socializtion??? Even though boys and girls
are socialized different in different parts of the world—when it comes
to the idea of undestanding who has power----you immediately run into
a tricky situation that if women are controlled by patriarch—if whole
point is to say you don’t need the criminal justice system because
psychiatry is doing the job—if patriarchy is doing the job—doesn’t