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Lecture

Youth Justice-Sept 24, 2012.doc

6 Pages
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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW101Y1
Professor
William O' Grady

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Description
Youth Justice- September 24, 2012 Counting & Measuring Youth Crime • OBJECTIVE ASPECT=Objective reporting of crime UCR systems • UCR in Canada-started in 1962-before that dominion bureau statistics was responsible for reporting crime • Known crime (not solved)are reported by the police • Thus system has been in JDA, YOA and YCJA • Difference between YOA and YCJA-there was a significant difference in numbers • Crime is defined in terms of criminal code-standerdized • Crime varies across provinces-but we don’t know if they are “real differences” or differences in how crime is processed in each province. Crime is same in all places, but implementation of act JDA, YOA and YCJA and enforcement differs from provinces ex. The cut off age of youths defined differently across provinces • Comparing levels of crime over timeProblems w/ counting crimethere is no fool proof way of reporting crime • If ppl don’t report crime, its not reported to police and doesn’t show up in UCR statistics • Things like homicide , robbery are more accurately measured than minor crimes, like property crimes like theft under 1000 or minor assault • YCJA total number of cases of youth crime that went to court dropped significantly between 2002-2003—YCJA opposed to YOA punished more violent crimes, and provided alternatives for less serious crimes, there fore number of cases that went to court lowered • What does it mean? • Introduction of YCJA from JDA in 2003 which came in in spring- introduced program, if you were under 13, they used extrajudicial programs, which allowed you to avoid going to court, then custody • If you successfully completed this program , you don’t have a record • **property crime most prevelant among youth • property crime 50/50 • violent crime-male dominant • 12-15 less likely to appear in court, than 16-17 who were more likely to appear in court • 12-15 may have been sent to extrajudicial programs, 16-17 had longer records and only option was to go to court • *statistics consistent over time • female youth crime seen to have increase in some respect • *Probabtion most used in youth cases-guilty cases-this leads to “failure to obey orders” • Before you were sending almost everybody to jail, for minor crimes • This group now has longer records, more serious crime, more mental health problems • *the number of days spent in jail has gone up in YCJA-because ppl ae in there for more serious offences • *take a look at readings at what females are now being charged w/ as opposed to past • readings show more females are getting charged w/ assault • Assaults 3 levels, 1.2.3however in statistics all levels of assault are being weighted equally, even though the majority are minor assaults • So they come up with “Violent Severity Index”, mostly used for adults but also used for Youth cases • They look at punishment, homicide related number 1 on list , because of lengthy punishment periods • Juristrat in Stats Can, tries to interpret and analyze data • **One theory of why female assaults were going up, what because Safe School act makes it so they have to report even minor incidents (girl fights)-so this does not accurately measure change in female behavior, but rather a change in administration • *don’t let facts speak for themselvesthey are shaped by definitions of crime, change in legislations, changes in ways crime is reported • SELF REPORTING SURVEYS • Gained popularity in 1960 because youth were the ones responding to researchers • Researchers would go 2 schools and ask questions in self reporting surveys • *all crime cant be counted this way, more serious crimes ppl wouldn’t answer in a survey • Prior to 1960s-most theories of Youth crime, all emerged w/ similar findings ex. Social class was directly linked crime •
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