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Lecture

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5 Pages
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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW101Y1
Professor
Scot Wortley

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Week THREE
Why do some people engage activity and others refrain from it? What is a theory?
Basic components of criminological theory:
Explanatory framework (set of ideas or arguments used to explain a particular
phenomenon
Assessment strategies (ounce a theory is develop you have to design strategies to test
it)
Policy recommendations
Common theoretical debates:
Tension between theories that focus on structure (economy...) and that focus on
process (relationship building)
Theories that argue that all human being are responsible of there action, since we
are all conscious of our actions (vs.) We are born with a clean slate but what we are
exposed to and what we experience during our lives
Society is responsible for the human behaviour we observe and they are responsible
for crime (vs.) people are responsible on there actions.
Degrees of consensus
Empirical assessment:
Theories must be testable
Good theories are not tautological. (circular logic) ( no empirical relationship
between your cause ant effect)
Must be able to operationalize (measure or document) important concepts or
variable
Evidence must be observable
Social policy and theory:
Some theories focus on changing the individual
Some focus on changing local communities (new economic activity, changing the
design of the community)
www.notesolution.com
Some theories focus on changing society (reducing poverty)
Some theories focus on changing the law
Must consider the practical limitations of theoretical derived policy
recommendations.
Crime in the dark ages:
Mores and Folkways dominated feudal communities. The law varies from region to
region (it was very localized)
Serious crime explained in spiritual terms: the battle between good and evil.
Demonology was very popular.
Trephination: an early form of neural surgery designed to release eveil spirits
dwelling in the heads of offenders
Guilt often determined by ordeals ordeals by water, ordeal by fire, by battle, ...
The age of brutal public punishment and torture (the pillory, beheading, hanging,
draw and quartering , ...
Chaotic, arbitrary justice. Local economic and religious elites use the justice system
to eliminate their enemies and maintain power
The enlightenment:
Period of industrialization and urbanization
The age of scientific discovery 9astronomy and physics, law)
Important Enlightenment thinkers include Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau and Paine.
They introduced revolutionary concepts including: the idea of fundamental human
rights, the social contract, the natural law and equality under the law, etc.)
The classical school (the founders):
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794). An Italian philosopher. Groundbreaking manuscript
entitled An Essay on Crime and Punishment (published in 1764).
Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). An English philosopher. Most important work
entitled Introduction to the Principle of Morals and Legislation.
They were the pioneer of criminology and the father of classical criminology. They
had very similar ideas
www.notesolution.com

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Description
Week THREE Why do some people engage activity and others refrain from it? What is a theory? Basic components of criminological theory: Explanatory framework (set of ideas or arguments used to explain a particular phenomenon Assessment strategies (ounce a theory is develop you have to design strategies to test it) Policy recommendations Common theoretical debates: Tension between theories that focus on structure (economy...) and that focus on process (relationship building) Theories that argue that all human being are responsible of there action, since we are all conscious of our actions (vs.) We are born with a clean slate but what we are exposed to and what we experience during our lives Society is responsible for the human behaviour we observe and they are responsible for crime (vs.) people are responsible on there actions. Degrees of consensus Empirical assessment : Theories must be testable Good theories are not tautological. (circular logic) ( no empirical relationship between your cause ant effect) Must be able to operationalize (measure or document) important concepts or variable Evidence must be observable Social policy and theory : Some theories focus on changing the individual Some focus on changing local communities (new economic activity, changing the design of the community) www.notesolution.com
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