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University of Toronto St. George
Women and Gender Studies
June Larkin

Essay tips: *break it down* Read p.2 of textbook Define the term “the two gender system” – what does it mean, refer to authors/course material st “that seems so natural” – discuss “natural” - biological determinism, essentialism. Spend 1 part showing reader you know the terms “has not been so for all time or everywhere in the world” – evidence from readings that show this Drawing on course material discuss using at least 2 examples and key refs to support points – think historical and cross cultural *bibliography can be another page* 1) refer only to course material 2) use multiple authors where possible 3) make an appointment with the writing centre -> new college knows about this course/assignment 4) have someone read your paper *show how you’re working with the course material* “so and so defines gender as …. But so and so adds to this and…” Gender, race & colonizing knowledges 1) Interrogating race 2) Race and mental illness 3) Race, mental illness and slavery 4) Colonialism and genocide 5) Lee maracle: ravensong Readings: “why is it problematic to use ‘race’ as a biological category” “in what ways has colonialism been both a raced and gendered process” Interrogate race Does race exist? Race is political (census), subjective, changes over time -> goes against belief that it’s biological Race is a social construction Over 90% of genetic variation is shared by racial/ethnic groups Genetic profiles vary considerably more within individuals of a given race, than between individuals of different races Identifiers of race: skin colour, brain size, ancestry, bone structure, geography, hair texture, etc. Scientifics try to identify where race is.. skin? Hair? Genes? Where is this thing called “race”? Linnaeus taxonomy: the system of scientific classification widely used in the biological science Used to define the species in biological sciences Blumenbach: expanded work of Linnaeus. Race was in skulls. Divided races into 5 groups: Caucasian: the white race, Mongolian the yellow, Malayan, the brown, Ethiopian the brown, Ethiopian the black, American the red Based on geography initially. “there is no consistent legitimate way to identify race.. race and ethnicity are not as clear cut as people think. But this does not mean that race doesn’t matter. Cultural construction – very powerful. Labels have power even if we wish they did not. Common ancestors, but daily life is affected by race. Race is a complex and shifting categorical system – basis in people’s perceptions not genes.” Race stratifies our society in different ways – matters Racialization: the process of assigning a racial category – verb: “to racialize” Race is malleable. Imposed. Government can change your race if they want – state sanctioned. Assigned by the government, friends, parents, scientists, etc. Always a political process – structures our society Race came into being as scientific study to justify the slave trade – “black people’s servitude to white people is natural” certain kinds on inequities are natural Abe Lincoln: favoured permanent racial segregation, believed in intellectual inferiority of African americans, even though he abolished slavery “physical diff between white/black, forbid the two from living in social equality” Aka Abe Lincoln was a major douche RACE AND MENTAL ILLNESS Jane eyre:Rochester is also a douche wow, jane eyre like condoned his douchiness and charlotte bronte was iffy
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