Class Notes (837,538)
Canada (510,303)
WDW101Y1 (300)
Rowen (24)
Lecture

Crime and Gender Lecture 5

6 Pages
97 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course
WDW101Y1
Professor
Rowen
Semester
Fall

Description
WDW 380: Crime, Sex & Gender Adolescence and Crime October 12, 2011 Professor Rosemary Gartner Announcements • Holly Pelvin is the t.a. who will be marking the essays on “Frozen River”. Her office hours are on Mondays, 1 – 3 • Alexandra (Sasha) Lysova is the t.a. who will be marking the essays on “Michael Clayton.” Her office hours have changed to Thursdays, 2 – 4. Clarification of the typologies of intimate partner violence discussed in last week’s lecture - The typologies were: common couple violence, non-systematic abuse, and systematic abuse (or patriarchal terrorism) - These are seen as distinct and mutually exclusive. Questions You Should Be Able to Answer After Today’s Class 1 How are sex differences in crime and victimization by youths affected by the larger context of their lives? 1 Do girls/young women & boys/young men join gangs and engage in violence for different reasons? Gender and Young Offenders Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey • Professors Julian Tanner & Scot Wortley • Surveyed 3,393 high school students in 30 high schools in Toronto • Surveyed 396 street youth recruited from drop-in centres and youth shelters • Asked questions about their involvement in crime & experiences of victimization, among other things -They did this study because you can’t rely on official statistics because most youth crime doesn’t get reported. Also, most of the types of crime that young people engage in are minor enough that they don’t come to the attention of the police. Thus, you need to go to the people to get the answers. -This study took time to get off the ground because it was hard to get the okay’s to get themselves in the door of the schools. -They surveyed high-school youth and got a very good response youth. They realized though that by just going to high schools, will exclude those not in the high school (truancy, drop-outs, etc). The problem is that these who are not present are usually the most likely to engage in crime. Thus, they studied street youth as well. Characteristics of High School Youth: Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey Number of respondents 3,393 Average age 16.5 yrs % female 50% % born in Canada 54% Racial identity White 39% Black 14% Asian 18% South Asian 12% Other 17% Lived with both parents growing up 77% -The kids were about 16.5 and about half were females. Moreover, they got close got close to matching the racial distribution in the population. Most grew up with both parents. Characteristics of Street Youth: Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey Number of respondents 396 Average age 19 yrs % female 30% % born in Canada 79% Racial identity White 60% Black 19% Asian 2% South Asian 1% Other 17% Lived with both parents growing up 40% -The street youth were older on average, less likely to be female, and most were white. Few grew up with both parents. Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey Youths’ experiences of victimization • Non-violent & violent; ever during their lives • 75% of high school students reported at least one type of victimization • 85% of street youth reported at least one type of victimization • Largest difference between high school & street youth was for the most serious victimizations (e.g., assaulted w/ a weapon). • 16% of high school youth; 60% of street youth -Overall, they found that 75% of high school students reported at least 1 type of victimization, and about 85% for street youth. -The largest differences in the prevalence of victimization between high school students and street youth was when looking at the most serious victimization. Percent of Toronto High School Students: Reporting Victimization Female Male Minor theft 70.4% 73.8% Major theft 32.4% 39.4% Threatened 57.8% 76.1% Threatened w/ weapon 8.3% 37.7% Physically assaulted 59.2% 79.9% Assaulted w/ weapon 8.6% 22.5% Unwanted sex. touching 41.6% 9.2% Sexually assaulted 20.3% 4.5% # of respondents 1,696 1,697 -For high school students, males are more likely to have been victimized in all categories except unwanted sexual touching/sexual assault. Thus, males are highly overrepresented as victims. Smaller sex differences occur in less serious types of crime. Percent of Toronto Street Youth Reporting Victimization (ever) Female Male Minor theft 76.5% 78.5% Major theft 48.7% 65.0% Threatened 89.9% 82.5% Threatened w/ weapon 70.6% 73.4% Physically assaulted 82.4% 81.0% Assaulted w/ weapon 50.4% 63.5% Unwanted sexual touching 73.9% 37.2% Sexually assaulted 72.3% 26.3% # of respondents 119 277 -For street youth, females are as likely if not more than are males. In comparison to high school, we see much smaller sex differences for street youth and much higher sex differences in victimization for high school students. -This means that for youth who are living on the street and are marginalized in society, the risk for females and males being victimized is about the same. Thus, living on the street raises the risks for females more than it does for males. Moreover, living on the street erases most of the sex differences in victimization. Thus sex isn’t strongly correlated with victimization except when it comes to sexual victimization in the case of street youth. Conclusions from Comparing the Victimization Experiences of High School Street Youth • Living on the street raises youths’ victimization risks, particularly for females • Living on the street erases sex differences in victimization among youth • Female youth living on the street have greater risks of victimization than male high school youth Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey Youths’ experiences of non-violent offending • Ever in their lives • 53% of high school students reported at least one type of non-violent offending • 77% of street youth reported at least one type of non-violent offending • Largest difference between high school & street youth was for illegal drug sales – 14% of high school youth; 65% of street youth -In terms of non-violent offences, there’s a higher proportion of street youth reporting at least 1 type of non-violent offending, though over 50% of high school students did too. The largest difference between street youth and high school students was for the more serious non-violent crime, being drug sale. Percent of Toronto High School Youth who Report: Deviant Activity at Some Time in Their Lives Female Male Auto theft 1.9% 8.2% Bike theft 3.8% 21.0% Breaking & entering 2.9% 10.8% Sold illegal drugs 8.1% 19.0% Theft of food/drink 49.7% 55.5% Other minor theft 41.6% 53.3% Major theft 10.6% 23.6% Used TTC w/out paying 42.7% 47.8% Computer hacking 5.6% 20.6% Had sex for money . 8% 3.3% -Thus we can also see that males are more likely than females in all categories to self-report non-violent criminal involvement in high school. Thus there are clear sex differences in non-violent offending. Percent of Toronto Street Youth who Report: Deviant Activity at Some Time in Their Lives Female Male Auto theft 27.6% 44.2% Bike theft 26.7% 56.9% Breaking & entering 44.8% 55.1% Sold illegal drugs 62.9% 66.4% Theft of food/drink 72.4% 72.3% Other minor theft 69.0% 73.7% Major theft 55.2% 68.2% Used TTC w/out paying 74.1% 74.8% Computer hacking 14.7% 22.6% Had sex for money 26.7% 26.3% -There is less sex differences in self-reporting non-violent offending among street youth. We see that living on the street raises the risks of offending for both sexes, but it raises it more for females. Females on the street actually engage in more non-violent offending than do high school males. Toronto Youth Crime and Victimization Survey Youths’ experiences of violent offending • Ever during their lives • 62% of high school students reported at least one type of violent offending • 85% of street youth reported at least one type of violent offending • Largest difference between high school & street youth was for robbery/extortion • 13% of high school youth; 49% of street youth -Obviously violent offending is more prevalent among street youth. The biggest difference between high school and street youth is for the most serious crimes. Percent of Toronto High School Youth Who Report Engaging in Violence at Some Time in Their Lives Female Male Carried a weapon 14.3% 32.9% Robbery/extortion 6.1% 19.5% Assault w/ intent to cause serious harm 12.4% 28.0% Assaulted/threatened teacher/parent 11.1% 13.1% Got into a physical fight 46.3% 77.2% Involved in group/gang fight 21.8% 42.1% Sexually assaulted someone .5% 2.6% -In high school, the biggest sex gaps are in the most serious crimes. However, a fairly large proportion of girls in high school report some form of physical violence. Percent of Toronto Street Youth Who Report Engaging in Violence at Some Time in Their Lives Female Male Carried a weapon 64.1% 65.9% Robbery/extortion 44.0% 52.0% Assault w/ intent to cause serious harm 55.7% 57.1% Assaulted/threatened teacher/parent 43.1% 48.0% Got into a physical fight 82.8% 87.2% Involved in group/gang fight 46.6% 63.4% Sexually assaulted someone 4.3% 11.0% -In street youth, we start to see almost equivalent involvement in almost every category. Apart from a few, women are just as likely as men on the street to engage in serious violent crime. Women on the street are more likely to be involved in assault intending to cause harm than high school males. Thus, the sex gap is wiped out. Conclusions From Comparing Offending By High School and Street Youth • Living on the street raises youths’ risks of offending, particularly for females • Living on the street reduces sex differences in offending by youth • Female youth living on the street have higher rates of offending than male high school youth -This seems to contradict what we learned a few weeks ago in violent offending when we learned that males are universally more violent. Thus, this suggests that it isn’t just sex that structures the context of crime. If you compare deprived and marginalized populations with regular ones, the sex gap may disappear. Other research has suggested that sex may not be the most important determinant of the involvement in crime and that there may be other types of inequality (economic, racial, etc) that may have the same or more impact on crime than gender. -Thus, gender may not be the most important inequality when looking at crime. Other theories (like intersectionality)
More Less

Related notes for WDW101Y1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit