JAN 28 , 2013
WDW210 Lecture 4
Major Issues in Canadian Policing
Types of Police Corruption
- Internal Corruption (Favourtisism in promotions, testing > selling tests to ranking
• Misuse powers for personal gains (financial gains as well as indirect gains)
- Selective Enforcement (favouritism)
• Trying to get out of tickets and other activities through family members that
are in the law enforcement (inside connections)
- Active Criminality
• Use power and authority to engage in criminal activity
• Major fraud
• Active police participation in the drug trade (working with major drug
cartels, relationships built, active aggressive control)
- Bribery and Extortion
• Bribery: accepting bribes from citizens
• Extortion: if you give me X I will not write you a ticket (financial gains)
• Mooching: accepting free items from shops etc
• Can result in hierarchy in treatment when it comes to police response
• “The badge for benefits” using it to gain access to value venues/events
• indirect security for venues/events
• Taking evidence for personal use
• Arriving at a crime scene and not taking it into evidence
• Identifying someone who is a trafficker and taking the money and/or drugs
for personal use and not reporting it to the police
- Brutality – misuse of physical force.
- Noble cost correction: police officers breaking the rules to keep social order
• Will create doubts in society, whether their legal authority was legit or not
• Confidence in police changes
The Structure of Corruption
- Type A: Rotten Apples and Rotten Pockets.
• We recruit from the human race and once in a while a individual will squeeze
• Nothing wrong with the system, it works and it is necessary
• Don’t blame the other officers just cause of a few rotten apples
- Type B: Pervasive Unorganized Corruption.
• Promoted through the police subculture
• Mooching and taking gifts from other subcultures
• Demanding small bribes from motors to let them get by
• Tourists is the most common targets for police officers
• Tend not to file complaints / have cash on them (perfect target)
- Type C: Pervasive Organized Corruption. JAN 28 , 2013
• Theft from material stores, challenged/lives were put at risk
• “snitch” on such events, you are on our own on the streets
Explaining Police Corruption
- The “statistical probability” explanation.
- Extreme exposure to temptation and criminal opportunities.
- Job stress.
- Police cynicism.
o Revolving door justice system
- Poor pay/benefits.
- The Police Subculture (the Code of Silence).
o If other police officers don’t speak up and snitch, they will feel
empowered to engage in more like activities
- Poor supervision.
- Poor accountability mechanisms.
o Weak internal affairs department
- Strong/politically active police unions.
o May protect or increase more police corruptions
o Police unions are strong to protect police officers (to protect its
Curbing Corruption and Brutality
- Change police subculture
- Better internal supervision and monitoring
- Create more powerful civilian review boards
o They need to have real power to be successful
- Terminate special units
o The most corrupt is the special units (underworld figures/crimes) thus
- Video-tape police encounters
o Will ensure officers behave and abide by rules
o Protect them from false allegations
- Create detailed rules – communicate and enforce these rules.
o Ie mooching, most likely to abide
- Better screening – better training.
o Training that brings about the questions and ethics
- Decrease job stress – provide tools for better stress management.
o Reduce stress > reduce cynicism and temptation
- Improve level of compensation.
o The police are professionals and must be treated like one (compensation)
- Internal Mechanisms: Departmental policies, improved training, increased
supervision of of street level officers.
• Rules and regulations, training and increase in training,
- External Mechanisms: Civilian Review Boards, legislative control, control by the
criminal courts. JAN 28 , 2013
• Decisions made by the criminal courts to see what is acceptable
• INFORMAL/INTERNAL: the police subculture.
• FORMAL/INTERNAL: internal affairs
• Making sure the police abide by polices, dedicated to “police the police”
• Most compensation the internal affairs officers, build a strong internal
culture, must give them tools and resources necessary to succeed
• INFORMAL/EXTERNAL: the media, public opinion.
• Informs public and control
• The police will respond to public concerns, change adapt reform
• FORMAL/EXTERNAL: civilian review agencies (SIU), public complaints
commissions, the government, the courts, etc.
Models of Civilian Oversight
• The In-House Model: Recording, investigation and adjudication are controlled by
• Will investigate the validity
• Externally Supervised In-House Model: In