WDW210 Lecture 4.docx

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Woodsworth College Courses
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Jim Davies

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JAN 28 , 2013 WDW210 Lecture 4 Major Issues in Canadian Policing Types of Police Corruption - Internal Corruption (Favourtisism in promotions, testing > selling tests to ranking police officers, • Misuse powers for personal gains (financial gains as well as indirect gains) - Selective Enforcement (favouritism) • Trying to get out of tickets and other activities through family members that are in the law enforcement (inside connections) - Active Criminality • Use power and authority to engage in criminal activity • Major fraud • Active police participation in the drug trade (working with major drug cartels, relationships built, active aggressive control) - Bribery and Extortion • Bribery: accepting bribes from citizens • Extortion: if you give me X I will not write you a ticket (financial gains) - Mooching/Chiselling • Mooching: accepting free items from shops etc • Can result in hierarchy in treatment when it comes to police response • “The badge for benefits” using it to gain access to value venues/events • indirect security for venues/events - Shopping • Taking evidence for personal use • Arriving at a crime scene and not taking it into evidence - Shakedowns: • Identifying someone who is a trafficker and taking the money and/or drugs for personal use and not reporting it to the police - Brutality – misuse of physical force. - Noble cost correction: police officers breaking the rules to keep social order • Will create doubts in society, whether their legal authority was legit or not • Confidence in police changes The Structure of Corruption - Type A: Rotten Apples and Rotten Pockets. • We recruit from the human race and once in a while a individual will squeeze by • Nothing wrong with the system, it works and it is necessary • Don’t blame the other officers just cause of a few rotten apples - Type B: Pervasive Unorganized Corruption. • Promoted through the police subculture • Mooching and taking gifts from other subcultures • Demanding small bribes from motors to let them get by • Tourists is the most common targets for police officers • Tend not to file complaints / have cash on them (perfect target) - Type C: Pervasive Organized Corruption. JAN 28 , 2013 • Theft from material stores, challenged/lives were put at risk • “snitch” on such events, you are on our own on the streets Explaining Police Corruption - The “statistical probability” explanation. - Extreme exposure to temptation and criminal opportunities. - Job stress. - Police cynicism. o Revolving door justice system - Poor pay/benefits. - The Police Subculture (the Code of Silence). o If other police officers don’t speak up and snitch, they will feel empowered to engage in more like activities - Poor supervision. - Poor accountability mechanisms. o Weak internal affairs department - Strong/politically active police unions. o May protect or increase more police corruptions o Police unions are strong to protect police officers (to protect its membership) Curbing Corruption and Brutality - Change police subculture - Better internal supervision and monitoring - Create more powerful civilian review boards o They need to have real power to be successful - Terminate special units o The most corrupt is the special units (underworld figures/crimes) thus most tempted - Video-tape police encounters o Will ensure officers behave and abide by rules o Protect them from false allegations - Create detailed rules – communicate and enforce these rules. o Ie mooching, most likely to abide - Better screening – better training. o Training that brings about the questions and ethics - Decrease job stress – provide tools for better stress management. o Reduce stress > reduce cynicism and temptation - Improve level of compensation. o The police are professionals and must be treated like one (compensation) Police Accountability - Internal Mechanisms: Departmental policies, improved training, increased supervision of of street level officers. • Rules and regulations, training and increase in training, - External Mechanisms: Civilian Review Boards, legislative control, control by the criminal courts. JAN 28 , 2013 • Decisions made by the criminal courts to see what is acceptable Police Accountability • INFORMAL/INTERNAL: the police subculture. • FORMAL/INTERNAL: internal affairs • Making sure the police abide by polices, dedicated to “police the police” • Most compensation the internal affairs officers, build a strong internal culture, must give them tools and resources necessary to succeed • INFORMAL/EXTERNAL: the media, public opinion. • Informs public and control • The police will respond to public concerns, change adapt reform • FORMAL/EXTERNAL: civilian review agencies (SIU), public complaints commissions, the government, the courts, etc. Models of Civilian Oversight • The In-House Model: Recording, investigation and adjudication are controlled by the police. • Will investigate the validity • Externally Supervised In-House Model: In
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