WDW101Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Crime Prevention, Private Investigator, Stress Management

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2 Feb 2013
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JAN 28th, 2013
WDW210 Lecture 4
Major Issues in Canadian Policing
Types of Police Corruption
- Internal Corruption (Favourtisism in promotions, testing > selling tests to ranking
police officers,
Misuse powers for personal gains (financial gains as well as indirect gains)
- Selective Enforcement (favouritism)
Trying to get out of tickets and other activities through family members that
are in the law enforcement (inside connections)
- Active Criminality
Use power and authority to engage in criminal activity
Major fraud
Active police participation in the drug trade (working with major drug
cartels, relationships built, active aggressive control)
- Bribery and Extortion
Bribery: accepting bribes from citizens
Extortion: if you give me X I will not write you a ticket (financial gains)
- Mooching/Chiselling
Mooching: accepting free items from shops etc
Can result in hierarchy in treatment when it comes to police response
“The badge for benefits” using it to gain access to value venues/events
indirect security for venues/events
- Shopping
Taking evidence for personal use
Arriving at a crime scene and not taking it into evidence
- Shakedowns:
Identifying someone who is a trafficker and taking the money and/or drugs
for personal use and not reporting it to the police
- Brutality misuse of physical force.
- Noble cost correction: police officers breaking the rules to keep social order
Will create doubts in society, whether their legal authority was legit or not
Confidence in police changes
The Structure of Corruption
- Type A: Rotten Apples and Rotten Pockets.
We recruit from the human race and once in a while a individual will squeeze
by
Nothing wrong with the system, it works and it is necessary
Don’t blame the other officers just cause of a few rotten apples
- Type B: Pervasive Unorganized Corruption.
Promoted through the police subculture
Mooching and taking gifts from other subcultures
Demanding small bribes from motors to let them get by
Tourists is the most common targets for police officers
Tend not to file complaints / have cash on them (perfect target)
- Type C: Pervasive Organized Corruption.
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JAN 28th, 2013
Theft from material stores, challenged/lives were put at risk
“snitch” on such events, you are on our own on the streets
Explaining Police Corruption
- The “statistical probability” explanation.
- Extreme exposure to temptation and criminal opportunities.
- Job stress.
- Police cynicism.
o Revolving door justice system
- Poor pay/benefits.
- The Police Subculture (the Code of Silence).
o If other police officers don’t speak up and snitch, they will feel
empowered to engage in more like activities
- Poor supervision.
- Poor accountability mechanisms.
o Weak internal affairs department
- Strong/politically active police unions.
o May protect or increase more police corruptions
o Police unions are strong to protect police officers (to protect its
membership)
Curbing Corruption and Brutality
- Change police subculture
- Better internal supervision and monitoring
- Create more powerful civilian review boards
o They need to have real power to be successful
- Terminate special units
o The most corrupt is the special units (underworld figures/crimes) thus
most tempted
- Video-tape police encounters
o Will ensure officers behave and abide by rules
o Protect them from false allegations
- Create detailed rules communicate and enforce these rules.
o Ie mooching, most likely to abide
- Better screening better training.
o Training that brings about the questions and ethics
- Decrease job stress provide tools for better stress management.
o Reduce stress > reduce cynicism and temptation
- Improve level of compensation.
o The police are professionals and must be treated like one (compensation)
Police Accountability
- Internal Mechanisms: Departmental policies, improved training, increased
supervision of of street level officers.
Rules and regulations, training and increase in training,
- External Mechanisms: Civilian Review Boards, legislative control, control by the
criminal courts.
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