February 5. 2013
Radicalization and the Threat of Security
- Political and social exclusion in the German context
Structural barriers to inclusion
Pushes towards involvement in the informal economy
Importance and creation of identity
- Looking at the importance of identity within a different context and with potentially different
- Examining what is meant by “radicalization”.
How might terrorist events shift political views of different groups?
- How might social exclusion contribute to radicalization?
What is radicalization?
- Radicalization was not a big concept before. Linking people and idea of radicalization is new to
21 century (within the last 10 years). Know closely linked to Muslims. Brought to the fore after
terrorist acts in Madrid and London. London bombing was a result of home grown terrorists.
- The „new terrorist‟: the threat of „home grown terrorist‟
- Used to understand root causes to terrorism. Look at what happened before the bomb went off.
Why was this necessary as a step?
Broad perspectives on radicalization:
- Two main perspectives:
- Moral underclass/culture: it is a result of culture. Often echoes islamophobic sentiments.
- Social integration: it is through social exclusion and lack of integration.
Underclass/Cultural Argument: Ordinary people from ordinary places
- Risk is seen as coming from either outside through immigration or from below from the lower
- Focused on Muslims
Due to one‟s culture and/or through cross-cultural pressure. This is used for tough-on-
crime/right wing statements on prevention of such crimes. When exposed to western
values and feel a conflict between the two beliefs. It is not exclusion but rather
frustrations and pressures.
They often focus on 2 and 3 generation male immigrants who are recruited.
Seen as an issue of cultural identity, not marginalization.
- Everyone is susceptible to be recruited. These recruits often feel a sense of justice.
- FBI- looking at people with economic means, in prison, and universities**
- How to address the issue of conflict of culture leading to radicalization?
Emphasis on early prevention prior to radicalization
Win “them” over before they can become susceptible to radicalization.
- From this model, Muslim leaders are themselves at risk since it is a social problem. Social Integration perspective:
- Risks to radicalization are seen in the margins of society
Notion that discrimination, segregation and exclusion can lead to support for violence
and extreme acts
Importance placed on integration of individuals.
- Those who are well-integrated are protected from radical ideas but those marginalized are more
vulnerable; those who are impoverished.
- Integration: having a job which allows them to support themselves and gives social obligations
and ties. This could also include sports and religion; moderate groups. This