WDW335.OCT11.docx

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Department
Woodsworth College Courses
Course Code
WDW101Y1
Professor
Dena Demos

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Midterm: - 2 hours - Essay questions - 4 questions, choose 3 - Can use point-form, but elaborate - All of the material so far in the term...deal w/ significant issues/topics - Emphasis on lectures OVER the readings (try to integrate readings) - Questions are RIGH FROM LECTURE MATERIALS - Not responsible for mary corsiano’s article and the Toronto star article Typologies of Policing (general over-views, not perfect typologies) 1) Political Era (1800-1930) - Quasi-militaristic model; a decentralized command structure, available technology determine strongly the type of organization/police service, locally authorized, most of their resources from political leaders, guided essentially by local political leaders - Police were under the control of local politicians which were dominant, they controlled the hiring - Police locally authorized - Very much a part of the local socio-economic political system, much much closer to local gov’t than today - Function was that of crime-prevention, law and order maintenance (very high social presence); lots of social interaction with people, particularly in public space (E.g. w/ immigrants and homeless, and poor segments of the population  people in public spaces) - Major strategy of operations was foot patrol (walking the “beat” every police officer was assigned to particular neighbourhood, and frequenting the same neighbourhood, meaning that they will know the resident/business very well in their area...able to develop a network in the neighbourhood to very quickly become aware of particular situations, when crime would occur, and find from indvls who the suspects would be...VERY CLOSE BOND b/t beat cop and local residents THUS justice tended to be swift and problems were proactively identified and addressed w/ officers, residents worked with officers to deal w/ issues of disorder) - Job demands from local gov’t and citizens - Problems i. Corruption: arose from close social political involvement and dependency on local leadership is going to trigger allegations of corruption ii. Allegations of discriminatory law enforcement: classist (targeting behaviour of particular groups) and racist o Citizens become frustrated w/ these problems, particularly w/ political influence of policing, citizens lobbied to separate the policing function from political function, the professionalization of policing (to move from the influence of the political structure, this is what is meant by the separate of policing from politics), drastic changes on the rise in the organization of police, and service and delivery of police Summary: clearly problematic, police are very close to the people that they are policing, rife w/ corruption 2) Reform era (aka. Professional era) (1940-1970) - Also referred to as “traditional policing” - Significant changes ushered in by technological advances in the areas of both transportation and communication, which came about in the mid-century  cruiser radios (central dispatch), 911 two-way radios, patrol cars; fundamentally alter the way police service is going to be delivered, particularly at that level of communication, all police departments are receiving calls and they are dispatching officers right from there, central dispatch. Innovations in communications and transportation allow for much QUICKER RESPONSES ACROSS MUCH WIDER AREAS - Police organization moves to a centralized organizational design - Explosion of bureaucratic procedures (introduction of managerial strategies that are very hierarchical); lots of middle management now in the police organization, by the 1960s is that you find civil service protections for the police (e.g. hiring/promoting/firing based on qualifications, no longer based on party-affliation, in the previous era it was based on party affiliation) - The real significant difference between this ear and the previous one has to do w/ AUTHORIZATION (move from independence from local politics) - Results in “professionalization” of the police; Its the police themselves that know whats best, and up to do them operationalize it, - Police seen as a legal and technical matters;, they are going to be judging, and hiring based on qualifications, e.g. number of cases, case characteristics will be determined by police  POLICE NEUTRALITY goes hand in hand w/ police professionalization - Police procedure as the sole policing experts, they are OBJECTIVE, PROFESSIONAL, and DETACHED, this is the image that the police are trying to deploy  now seen as a profession from occupation, thus they are given better education incentives, and use scientific breakthroughs during this time frame (blood testing, finger-print testing, thy are being trained in these procedures and using them in their investigation) - Function no longer to provide social services, rather it is about law and order (another significant difference from previous era) - Motorized patrol replaces foot patrol  the purpose of this was because cars were increasingly used in crimes, allow for coverage of much greater and vaster geographic areas, motorized patrol becomes crucial become a method of crime prevention - “reactive policing” gets at the essence of how the police are to operate  shift from police initiated preventive action to reactive policing, - O.W. Wilson (father of modern policing) “Preventative patrol” (e.g. motor patrol) designed to produce a “feelings of omnipresence”, basically the idea that the police are everywhere  Is this a stronger police tactic as opposed to foot patrol? Both these studies show that it makes a difference in how citizens feel about their safety, but there isn’t significant in the crime rates...it APPEARS to be a stronger policing tactic, seems like its a powerful response (sirens blaring, etc.), but in truth its a weaker type of response, there’s a breach and THEN the police is there, the crime rate increased dramatically during this era (when police budget was much higher, not just because from foot patrol to motor patrol) - Police responses were instances driven, cases were processed w/ limited effectiveness to address underlying social problems, endless process of taking people out of the stream without regards to how they fall into the stream - Distancing from the community is absolutely deliberate, the criticsm of the previous era to avoid some of the political problems from the previous era, and police officers has to work faster and on several cases simultaneously, and much more of a need now to work quicker and work on more cases - Outcomes  no concerns of policing politicians (good thing), no concern about pleasing citizens (not so good), in terms of crime control the success of policing during this period was measured based on quantitative data (arrest rates are going to be high clearance rates are going to be high, low response times  these are signs of success), no body was measuring how residents felt about this, no qualitative data about how ppl felt about their safety, etc. - Problems (much more prominent in the 1970s/80s) o Crime rate increases o Pubic perception of fear of crime/victimization high; didn’t’ seem to meet the crime-control objectives of residents ...highly problematic because you care about ppl’s subjective feelings as just as significant as objective measures of crime, it will DELEGITIMIZE the police. Allegations of police not treating people equally and police targeting certain races and certain crimes (in 1970s/80s), allegations of racism and corruption  undermines police legitimacy o Socio-political problems *shift in the policing model takes place in the 1970s as citizens as well as government officials lose faith in the ability of the police to prevent crime, especially with their increased budget Summary: great improvement in training, and response (area), greater police independence, but in terms of effectiveness there are major problems 3) community policy era (1980s - ?) - co-production of safety (forging of partnership) ; working closely w/ the community and its agents to co-produce safety. The Police is still dominant and relying on the law - realization of a much stronger local profile and citizen participation and input; police are re-deployed into the community (in theoretical terms) - move away from 911 services calls, issuing a lot of crime-prevention programs in the community, after-school programs, etc. - return of the “beat” officers - proactive policing - role of police office: social stakeholder; police officer has a stake in all social aspects, has a stake in education, zoning, business planning, community activities ,etc. - a philosophy of full-service, personalized policing - “police are the public and the public are the police” - Dominant model of late modern policing in most western countries - Increased de-centralization, police officer dispersed in local settings (i.e. kiosks in eaton center), and re-emergence of foot patrol officers/beat cops this doesn’t happen overnight, required a significant re-socialization of police institution and indvl officers - Community policing is the DOMINANT model of late-modern policing most western countries - Are we at the end of this era, are we out of this era? - Purposeful distancing of number crunching/quantitative data , but the focus is NO LONGER JUST on the qualitative success...shift to measuring success on more qualitative indicator (e.g. fear of crime, kind of irrational and un-objective, but it is IMPORTANT, no relationship of who is at risk of victimization and their relative risk of victimization i.e. males has lowest fear of victimization but has the highest rate of victimization, vice versa for elderly) - There IS dissatisfaction w/ this model, dissastificaiton is growing, and not just amongst the public, the cops is more dissatisfied with this model than the public because they don’t feel that this is REAL policing (the real type if testosterone-fuelled, in your face, and this is just social work) , the PUBLIC is dissatisfied because of partial-policing, this notion that for certain communities and group the increased police presence is a negative implication of their community - Nothing really changes, we are talking about community policing as a major change, the units around the main body of policing changing, and in theory they are better-trained, and lots of police have more interaction w/ citizens, but it doesn’t effect the MAIN body of policing (expand in later lectures) Summary: civil servants, has notable effect on disorder and public faith and confidence, but clear shortcomings as well *Read Robert reiner reading What does “policing” actually look like? - 98% of police budgets are dedicated to salaries (paying for HR) - 60% of remaining budget gets spend on patrol work (includes criminal investigation and traffic work), patrol work is meant to control crime maintain order, prior 1980s was done ONLY in cars - Only btw 10-25% of all calls to the police have to do with crime (1960s and 1970s research). This seems to have changed in the last decade (since 1980s) growing proportions of calls in urban areas are in effect related to crime/potential crime. But have something to do with re-conceptualization of crime (e.g. domestic violence) - Still 1/3 of all calls are crime related but “false alarms” - 85% of crime calls involve property offences. Why are students calling when it pertains to property crime? Insurance claims need police file, property crime is the key determinant of police contact - 1998 Chicago Study: looked at all incoming calls for a year (from 97-98) o 50% of these calls were considered criminal by the caller o Only 17% were actually processed as crime o Disparity coming from the fact that police has a lot of discretion and they DO not use the criminal law in a majority of cases that they deal with, prioritizing allows them to use this, DISCRETION is KEY, police has a wide range of options to deal with the situation and thy have a lot of options and discretion to utilize - Nature of patrol work: most officers spend their time waiting - US studies from 1970s-1980s: 85% of an officer’s time if spent NOT dealing with citizens - it goes down during community policing era to 75% - no matter what study you look at in north America, 50% of police officer’s time is devoted to processing paper work, administrative functions...because so much time is devoted to admin work, to make a single police officer active present 24/7 in a particular area will take 10 police officers - police officers prefer crime fighting and resent their social service role - Ericsson: only 6% of dispatch calls are described by police officers as REAL police work or exciting... - Reiner American cop quote: 95% is not police work, its social service work and its B.S.  the danger is specific to the police, the police may be so bored that they might manipulate their environment to create excitement and try to trigger REAL police work. If you think of police work as about crime fighting, it limits the police function, its dangerous to regard primary task of police as crime control because we have now a significant body of evidence that shows very clearly that they are not achieving crime prevention, they are NOT good at crime control, and that it CANNOT be accomplished effectively, which is beyond police control, and to build your whole existence when you cannot succeed is dangerous for the police. BUT police work has ALWAYS been
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