Lec 1

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Woodsworth College Courses
William Watson

9/9/2013 3:02:00 PM WDW370 LEC 1 -Course outline: Legislation JDA 1908 Young offenders act Youth criminal Justice Act Evaluation -midterm 35% -term paper 40% 10 page paper  broad topics our job to make papers more focused - final test 25% Dec 4th Reading: Youth at risk Major themes in the course - today introduction MEDIA -social and historical context of crime A) How mass media portrays youth crime how media distorts what we know about youth crime-moral panics and media, how crime linked to entertainment, how crime presented in media B) Origins of juviellne delinquents acts separates young people as a separate category what sorts of rationale sets ages and they are constant overtime JDA- social and economic conseq that led to the law being created that made a separate legal system and whos interest was it serving. Where did they end up? Historical foundation OFFICAL STATISTICS - data comes in 4 different types A) UCR- uniform crime reporting (police) we have been collecting UCR since 1967 B) Self report data- surveys done with young people where they fill in what they have done in the past year that has been legal. We will compare self report and UCR. C) victimization survey- what they have done and victimizes by D) ethnographic studies. Interact and participate and observe in natural setting NOT survey th Sept 30 YOUTH CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT - politics around when and why it was created. Politics involved in creating the act where in other ways there is many overlaps. Who wanted change and how its different from the younger justice act. th OCTOBER 7 THEORY - what causes youth to be in trouble contemporary. Look at context of young people strain and control period are designed using young people as a reference group for causal groups. Non sociological and theories on classical school, positivism, social causation and social reaction theory TEST NUMBER ONE OCT 21 ST - 2 hours - format: 1/3 multiple choice 2/3 essay answer questions TH OCTOBER 28 female offending - focused upon in the 1970s young females. Females today are more deviant than in early generations -if it is true, why is there more changes or more aggressive than a decade ago. Evidence used and reasoning *law defines crime from 12-17 *** category of youth is past 17 now 24. Homeless youth is 16-24 you are in the adult system at 25. Reason why you look at 16 is because you cant be on the streets if you are 15 but should be in children‟s aid society -definition of youth depends on what system is being investigated ie homeless system, justice system - we will not be focusing on 12-17 because this is only legal definition TH NOV 4 AT risk -interviewed homeless kids and kids in gangs and what leads young people to join gangs, which area is more prevalent and how to get them out - another at risk is aborginal youth in Canada as they are over-represented in the justice system 3% population but involvement in crime is higher than proportion th November 11 BREAK th November 18 System dealing with law POLICING - first contact with the justice system. Somebody has a 14 year old involved in robbery - several areas in policing like police discretion and how they deal with young people and how discretion is used. A legal factors- severity of the offence B extra-legal factors - racial and gender – is one given more leniency? NOV 25 THCourt system - when young people go to court and attitudes towards the criminal justice system and how they feel like they have been treated by the criminal justice system - how they perceive the court and impacts on future offending - non court responding. Diverting kids away from the justice system by extra-judicial measure program. Police with non violent offenders are able too, if plead guilt they do punishment without jail - diversion measures - probation measures.. many kids breached these so given secondary probation measures and kids would breach again and kids would go to custody because they disobeyed these probations - NOW less kids are going to court DEC 2 ND - new alternatives to traditional punishment ie boot camps -scarred straight programbring kids to jail -restorative justice- not looking at lawyers/police, but approach involves parents and community to decide what to do these children. - how it effects recidivism EXAM - not cumulative INTRO LECTURE - key question: does crim justice have any impact on youth crime than if we had no jail - 9/9/2013 3:02:00 PM SEPT 16 TH LECTURE 1 SEPT 16 TH LECTURE 1 THE SOCIAL AND HISTORICAL CONTEXT OF YOUTH CRIME IN CANADA * What is youth vs Adult crime? themes: meaning of the different terms and how it evolved and why children are treated differently than adults * the role of the media in how youth crime framed and impact on how it causes youth crime and best ways to react to youth offending * objectivist vs constructionalist views; * The JDA; Juvinelle deliquents act that created a separate legal system btwn young people and adults and why it occurred and how the historical and social factors lead to this legislation  changes after that YCJA DIFFERENCE BTWN ADULT/YOUTH - why do we treat young people specifically 12-17 different than those UNDER and OVER? Differently as in the sanctions of offending are less punitive 18 and older? -less punitive: most jail time is 3 years where adult is given a life sentence - principles: mental capacity (young people are seen not to understand the consequences of their actions), state of dependency (reliant upon parents), don‟t understand conseq of their actions - * young people are more likely to be rehabilitated than adults. We wont rehab a youth by giving them a life sentence. Remolded or retrained so that they wont reoffend „ - key thing is YOA TO YJCA- criminal code is the same, the description in the criminal code applies the same, the meaning of crime is the same for 13 and 25 year old ( different conditions the law operates) - why are the ages set? Why is 17 the max where under the JDA some prov had youth until 16  is it arbitrary or is there research behind the age?  It is arbitrary and constructed because political decisions infl how it happens. In developed countries it is consistent with this age  Not written in stone, it is relativ - cases that are brought to adult court if you are 17 and commit a serious time? they are a threat to a society  * it is strickly for public protection. We are not fearful of shoplifters but murders sense of just desserts and retribution which is NOT IN THE YCJA..if you are involved in a serious crime you should be punished for it - how do we as a society understand youth crime as a regular system which plays a large role of how the media portrays crime? Key images we see for youth  Gangs especially in urban areas  Violent crimes such as murder  Sexual assault  Mass shooting We don‟t hear to much about kids stealing or being charged smoking a jointthese aren‟t as interesting MEDIA - most of youth crime is not violent but dispelling to consumers that we are giving them what they want. - the media is a business and its something that draws peoples attention but what effect does it actually have? People who watch violence on tv, are they more puntative or more fearful than those who don‟t watch violent tv - is fear of crime linked to media consumption If one group watches violence and the other doesn‟t, is the group watching violence more likely to be more violent than those that don‟t? Research is inconclusive: no definitive study on playing violent tv and more likely to be involved no research that fear of crime is greater if you watch violent tv * media itself isn‟t responsible for fears and images we have on crime =YET how the media frames things is imp bc how else do we know whats going on out there - crime is visible in the media but the politics is something we need to figure out Source 0   Bidirectional evidence people can respond to it ie newspapers editor 0 looks like a triangle NOW - not filtered at all. Ie online discussions not really filtered -more communication btwn readers and viewers MORE DIALOGUE on internet thn pre internet -now we know what people are saying but WE DON‟T KNOW if the posts are by the same people or how generalizable are they btwn the rest of the pop. It may be the same people. - media has more effect on peoples world - Dihol and chadee do lots of research on fear of crime *possible paper topic? OBJECTIVEST VS CONSTRUCTIONIST Views of understanding crime and apply to academic circles and how public understands Objectivist (legal object) crime is real - what the criminal code is is societies norms and values which are codified into laws. To understand canadas tolerance, look at the criminal code tells us what is acceptable and non acceptable- deviant behaviour is life sentence punishment punishment is seen as a reflection of canadas values and cultures Crime is also easily measured Constructionist - labelist perspective - we have to say somethings wrong before we have a label LABELCRIME - looking at label makers opposed to laberers. Are laws custom coded into laws or is there a consensus that all laws exist for the public good - ie drug use and drug possession- max fine for marijuana is 5 years in jail which is an example of if these laws are actually reflective of canadas values - today is cannabis normalized? Normalized meaning socially acceptable - How do we look at social acceptability? We cant look at the law on marij because laws are getting more severe  if you look at cannibus levels in high schools, students reporting drug use and the numbers in the 70s are higher than they are today. Drug use is not at its peak today.  Idea here: crime is constructive, what is crime now may not be a crime later  ie the opium act, before opium was allowed but now it has a deviant status.  ie alcohol is normalized today  look at cultural diff and change over time our society is not in agreement on punishment and what is legal/illegal.  Role in society of social problems. Some things become social problems and other things don‟t Joel rest research on why certain things become a social problem  Is it because there is more of them? What p
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