Week six: Second Generation Effect
Issue of second generation migrants and criminality
- Russia this week: Migrant workers rounded up for murdering an ethnic Russian. It
turned into a race riot against actions of the police. There is an issue between north
and south Caucasians. Nationality and ethnicity is stated as part of identity.
- The UK 2001: young Pakistani second-generation youth attacked an old man in
Bradford. It caused race riots in ethnically charged areas. Pakistani males don’t have
high crime rates but one crime has become political and leads to policy changes. It led
to community cohesion programs. Also 2005 terrorist attack. Cameron in 2011
declared multiculturalism is dead and unsuccessful.
- Netherlands in 2005: Murder of Theo Van Gogh by radical Moroccan for ‘Islamic’
reasons. Netherland had a liberal and integrative policy towards immigrants before
the incident. In 70s/80s, they had an anxiety about foreign workers and so developed
a model of what multiculturalism is supposed to be. They changed laws for
nationalization. Endorsed Affirmative Action. If you reduce criminogenic factors,
integration is made easier was the understanding.
o The change to the Netherlands Approach:
Integration policies that have been instituted in the 70s/80s changed
after the van Gogh murder.
From integration to assimilation
Civic integration exams both at home and abroad
Social cohesion cross cultural contacts
- Irregular migration and the UK
o Immigration Bill October 2013: crackdown on illegal migration
Harder to rent, use national health service, acquire bank account and
o Easier to remove those violating immigrant laws.
o The UK has to be a hostile environment for illegal migrants.
o Want to remove article A. European union human rights law.
- To legalize or Not?
o Irregular immigration in underpinned by the demands for cheap labor in the
post-industrial economy, a supply of private housing in poor urban districts,
and the need for potential business who can be exploited.
o Legalization would decrease strain on them.
o Now they lead to exploitation of illegals to criminal and wrong behavior
among illegals. Because I have no job, I can easily fall into delinquent
behavior. I am more vulnerable for criminal organizations. Strain Theory
according to Turkish illegal migrant.
Or else what else can they do? More marginalization and exclusion
lead to higher likelihood of criminal activity.
- The second generation effect: o US and Canadian research seems to show distinct differences between
o This is also true for w. Europe but the intergeneration differences here is
bigger. 2 generations is bigger and have a higher propensity to commit