For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.
•Course Outline: cover 3 topics; and 2 classes to do this. Absolutely need
a full comprehensive lecture on private policing.
•Leaves two topics: too classes need to accomplish this.
•Question covering more or less—areas not hit on specifically in the
final. Each question will deal with a specific topic.
•Format: identical to the midterm
•Still responsible for issues of transnational issues: ---responsible for
MARK Neocluous**** on the exam. –on New Science.
•Appears in a magazine of March 10, 2009.
•The title is Private cops take me down.
•While the policing services use to be the exclusive domain of the state,
significant transformation in the past 40 years in Canada have
resulted in the development of quite complex network. The state
remains a significant player in delivering service. In terms of
regulation, but growingly it is not the only institution involved in the
protection of individual and belongings. A significant portion of
policing activities are being performed by agencies that are being
performed outside of the confines of the government. We are
experiencing the pluralization of policing. **
•Pluaralizaiton of policing:: outside of the government
•Policing is being offered by private companies and community groups.
The state also provides private policing services.
•You can think of major events of lots of people together: and the need
here to have a lot of bodies—you see the state itself. Think of the
Olympics for example.
•A significant use of private personnel and want to quantify this.
•84 thousand personnel deployed across Canada, for public police there
is 62 thousand. Public police officers were outnumbered.
•From 1996-2001---the number of public police officers grew at a rate of
6% versus a growth rate of 2% for private personnel.
•In 2001, the picture changes in 2001.
•Since 2001, there is exponential growth (because the public is so
fearful). The number of police officers have remained stable.
•In the U.S., 3 times more private agents since 2001 than pubic police
•Individual communities also stepped up their resources.
•Teachers in Ontario have to also assume that a surveillance kind of
capability in Ontario Schools—monitoring, patrolling after and before
•In places like large commercial private companies—they complement—
there is this facilitation that is occurring between the private and
•For example, in every large city in Canada, business improved areas-
hire private security firms to patrol streets.
•In many urban areas—private security areas also patrol residential
•Each condominium hire private security firm to do policing.
•We have private companies involving in profiling of passengers
boarding airplanes. To determine whether or not there are legitimate
•Have private policing everywhere—ranging from gated communities,
retail stores, as well as social housing. Private security agents are
policing you, watching the cameras.
•British social theorists
•He talks about carceralization of America* --David Garland talks about
•He links it to 2001—It is not just about imprisoning bodies of colour—
everybody is under some surveillance—we have prisons—he talks
about America about one big prison—one the one hand you have
prisons, institutions and jail that are going to house and survey the
poor. The poor and rich are subjected to some control. He suggests that
private policing expansion is to blame for this carceraliztion of
America. It increases fear.
•Along with the exponential growth—in terms of home protection
•Private policing is also expanding range of function to include things
like forensic analysis—the exclusive domain if public police-they are
involved with things like investigation with corporate fraud, to protect
high tech companies from corporate crime.
•In terms of talking about private policing-what does it mean for the
public police? What it meant is that it forced them to redefine
themselves and discover new roles.
•This idea of being forced to redefine themselves—they are constantly
having to do this to relegitimate themselves. Look, the police are not
effective or efficient in achieving crime.
•**** LINK TO MARK** What does this exponential growth mean??
What does it mean more generally?? What it become necessssary to
distinguish police as an institution and as an activity***
•what we said then was that policing refers to the activities of any
individual or organization acting legally to maintain social order…(in
the first class of policing)
•Clearly the public police officers engage in policing defined in this way.
As evidence through.
•Private policing is AN AGENCY** not an institution.
•Public policing is about policing…as evident of those provided above. So
are other agencies are going to maintain social order through other
•Private police forces do much more than protect private property.
•They are very much involved in investigating crime—very active in
terms of making arrests in public spaces.
•Private policing in retail malls: they make arrests, they search people,
•This rapid growth of private security necessitated a rethinking the core
functions of policing should be. In other words, is there something
intrinsic about the role of the public police.
•We have to distinguish between the public police and the private police.
•They have to make there is something intrinsic about the role.
•Goals of private policing: is to reduce the risk of crime by taking
preventative actions** the goal of the public police:*** is to deter crime
by apprehending and punishing criminals.
•They may not be good at this—the way they rationalize themselves;
when public police officers speak they speak in those terms.
•Essential differences between the public and private policing:
•In terms of private policing: much more responsive to the bottom line of
safety—can be fired if they do not accomplish certain security
•The public police focus on arrest rates—they are never fired for failing
to achieve safety goals. Never fire police officers for not brining down
the crime rate.
•The public police have emphasized punitiveness and negative
•It’s about punishment much more than about prevention.
•In this document this research body identifies several important issues
that comments on this blurring on some issues. In terms of this issues
that comes out of the law commission of that paper—nice to think of
these questions for your research paper.