Policing: Week Four
•Asterick Readings-do not have to read the asterik one.
•Sir Robert Peel’s principles of policing:
•1) A police force will be much more accepted by society; a less physical
manifestation of the state; seen as a less of a physical embodiment
•2) The notion that legitimacy-being accepted as a legitimate
organization is a key force that it will be accepted; based the force on
key public relations.
•3) Community statement-the community needs to be part of the
enterprise. Otherwise the police would be seen as an alien
intervention; he wanted the society to accept the police of how things
have been done. Police are with us and among us.
•4) Compliance is the key here. If you have to resort to force, you have
already conceited some of the game; and the point of policing, get
people to the point where they were policing themselves. Need to
naturally obey, not force.
•The more you are going to use force against people, the less reluctant
•5) The police force is nobody’s arm. It is not the private army of
government. Sometimes, politicians forget that, e.g. Mike Harris
thought it was his own private army.
•6) Want to depend on the symbolic power of police; only when you can’t
be obeyed then turn to physical force. Always the last resort. It is all
about the idea of persuasion.
•7) Law and order is shared responsibility; we are all stakeholders in
this business, we all want order, and avoid chaos and it’s everyday’s
responsibility where we have a safe order in society.
•8) Strict separation of powers- separate from the judiciary. Not a police
officer because you have power to avenge your enemies. –that’s not the
role of the police officers; it is a public role.
•9) The idea you don’t want to saturate the place with police officer.
Cruisers do not amount to efficiency.
•Still talking about this document in 1829 because still can be used-very
modern. The modern police officer follows this form in one form or the
other; what was proposed back in the 1800s are still followed to this
•As a result of the Robert Peel Force, the London police force were
known as the PEELERS, or bobbies-it goes back to Robert who were
called bobby by his friends.
•Crime and order in London was controlled by preventative control; and
giving monetary awards for successful solutions in crime was
abolished; we turn back that rewards are offered; not just private
organization, but public have rewards; however, at the beginning, it
was removed because of the corruption.
•Besides crime prevention, Peel’s police force had other duties; for
example they were still responsible for things like lighting the street
lamp, and calling out the time-not everyone had a watch in 1829-
always watchful for fires and public service provisions.
•As with the policing function during medieval times, we’re clearly still
seen a role that for the police that is investing them very responsible
for the social critical function in the community.
•Despite the early success of the metropolitan police force the expansion
of policing to more rural areas was very gradual. By 1835-we have the
passage of the municipal operations act-required all bureaus to set up
police force under the control of the state. By 1856-Every district; every
community and province had to establish a police force.—were all
mandated by parliament by police force.
•Look at article Dennis-for midterm
•The modern constable-invested them in all aspect of social life; early
police officers were required to be on duty of 14-17 hours, and doing
this on foot patrol; quite intensive. These foot patrols amounted to 20
miles a day for weeks on end; many constables found they had to work
4-6 weeks straight before receiving a day off.
•Over the years, the working conditions change; the constable is finally
granted 2 days off per month. One of these days was a Sunday. They
are also a week holiday per year-but without pay.
•In terms of the function-they had a patrol function; walked a beat or a
particular jurisdiction but didn’t have much of a detection or
•This was seen as problematic not until 1842—the metropolitan police
force dedicates a first detective bureau-Scotland yard-the detective
bureau is established; public is upset—didn’t like detective branch
because they saw it as something very separate;thought it was Snoops.
It was very hated; initially seen as very inefficient. The reason for this
inefficiency—the first big case is to try figure out these five murders:
Jack the Ripper-couldn’t solve, really made the public kind of
disdainful on the other hand. They were not loved the public initially.
•These police officers were tasked with many responsibilities; also
expected to serve as respectors of nuisances; the legitimacy of weights
and measures; called upon when livestock was sick; things like
contagious diseases., and also enforce the rules around petroleum. At
least in theory they were suppose to deal with everything.
•Must found themselves dealing with public nuisance: public
drunknness, poaching, vagrancy, very few women constables during
this time period. When women did find work as constables they were
always required to travel in pairs, and also were to be followed by 6 to
10 yards by a male constable. The male constable was to never let the
women out of their sight and to assist them if they got into any trouble.
•With regard to actual mandate; people felt it was very radical, police
officers felt about the job was there is too much reporting; so much
•Once we get into the 1950s and 60s—move away from this model; when
we realize we are reactive police force. Shift in policing styles from
proactive than reactive.
•Constable and community—became too close; at the beat; impartiality
was a problem. Police officers are not physically deployed in their
neighbourhoods; move into police cruisers.
•As an institution that is directed and pay by the state this only
happens by the development by the nation state—emerges much more
clearly with the emergence of the nation-state-government power
starts to become defined. You need this parameters to have this public
police force. Government authority becomes defined.
•Two fundamental readings of this british case for policing: why did
1829 did we move to a public police force? Two versions of why this
•1) The traditional approach (consensus account)
•2) The revisionist approach (conflict account)
•The first story of the birth of policing: TRADITIONAL VERSION
(what are the main claims and assumptions, what was the context-
•1) Main pressures: pressures are coming to bear because of the
industrial revolution; pressures in society are emerging from it.
(pressure in britian emerging of industrial revolution)
•2) mass migration to society is going to create pressure for order and
•3) Quick urban growth and social change-these have brought fear and
increases in crime, and declining moral standards.
•4) The old policing system—the pre modern policing was weak-it was
corrupt, and was also very selective in terms of enforcement. The
constable was ineffective because out for personal gain.
•5) Resistance: from the middle class—resistance to this state system
style of policing because feel there are going to be infringements on
their civil liberties.
Otherwise the police would be seen as an alien intervention; he wanted the society to accept the police of how things have been done. Police are with us and among us: 4) compliance is the key here. If you have to resort to force, you have already conceited some of the game; and the point of policing, get people to the point where they were policing themselves. Need to naturally obey, not force: the more you are going to use force against people, the less reluctant they get, 5) the police force is nobody"s arm. It is not the private army of government. Sometimes, politicians forget that, e. g. mike har ris thought it was his own private army: 6) want to depend on the symbolic power of police; only when you can"t be obeyed then turn to physical force. Not a police officer because you have power to avenge your enemies.