Policing: Week Three
•History of Policing:
•Read article of John Hagan, and Ellen, and Michael Lynch article
•Look at European context, and look at UK represent in Canada
•Go back to pre-modern policing, understanding pre-modern policing is
going to be crucial to understand modern policing.
•Going to focus on the 19th century, this is a key time period, key time
period because it is an era of much larger developments that are
occurring in the sovereign state, a lot of dramatic developments are
taking place. It is the 19th century we have the emergence of the
•Turn to salary work, (waged workers), and the end of feudalism.
•The state is becoming modern, all these changes are going to change
the relationship between the state and the subject.
•When we move in the 19th century, the relationship is that the state is
going to be assuming much of the primary responsibility for the
welfare of its citizens.
•The state is understanding to provide a “standard of care” to the
•They have to guarantee things like protection and opportunity.
•The state becomes a key provider of services and goods that individuals
cannot get them for themselves.
•What kinds of things are we talking about here?
•Under feudalism, the feudal lord provided things. –but now
modernism, now the state is providing for them.
•Talking things like education, healthcare, law and order, court and
justice system, and their safety.
•In the United Kingdom, the beginning of the modern welfare state is
•The reason we can pinpoint 1911 as the beginning of modern welfare
state is when UK parliament everyone who works should pay national
unemployment—take money for wages that fund programs like
unemployment and healthcare.
•With the emergence of the welfare state more or less 1911, we see the
real emergence of the law as a key tool of exercise of government power.
•Power becomes more centralized, and legislation becomes the key form
of legitimizing power.
•The state is no longer going to beat you into compliance. It is going to
legislate against you. (the state)
•Going to go back before the conquest of England: (before the
rise of the welfare state)
•1) Medieval Times:
oearliest policing date in England- predates the Norman
Conquest of England.
oIt is initiated in 1066-by William the Conqueror the King of
oSignificant event: It is pivotal because it establishes one of the
most powerful monarchies of Europe with a sophisticated
oIn England, even before the conquest, we had a sophisticated
apparatus was pretty sophisticated.
oBefore this, we had forms of policing-very crude, the policing
system (the system of law and order prior to 1066) is community
based and relies on collective responsibility.
oPolicing entails security.
oAll adult males were responsible for what was referred to as the
good conduct of everyone else and also require to band together
for community protection.
o“The people were the police.”
oLook at policing pre 1066:
o“Tything-Man System”-you should give 10% of your income to
oThis is how we had law and order in society because of Tything-
Man system. Going to divide groups of adults men into 10 and
we’re going to hav Tythings, each of the group of 10 has its own
representative. Every representative was responsible to his
fellow –“shire-reeve”---the shire-reeve is going to become the
oElements of the Tything-man system is going to change, but not
completely abandon. Some of the roles change; for example, the
tything represative became the parish constable, the parish
constable was responsible for the sheriff or the justice of the
oVery widly established system in the 17th and 18th century. We’re
talking about a system where we have security of one unarmed
able bodied citizen and this person is appointed or elected
annually. This happens every year. The position of the parish
constable were unpaid.
oThey were unpaid. Secure observance of particular laws.
oWhat would happen if a big problem arose??
oRelationships were stable—because norms and values were
similar; community based.
oWhat would happen if a real social problem arose??—the
constable was unarmed.
oPolicing is a collective responsibility—get other men to help you
as well because it is a collective responsibility.
oWhat else can you do? You can call the militia for lower level
oIn larger towns, responsibility for order was conferred on to the
group known as the guilds.
oResponsibility of the town transferred to Guilds are associations
of master craftsmen, eventually included class of merchants.
oEventually, the guild is going to expand, and are going to be
paid. We had “The Watch”-able bodied men they are patrolling
the streets at night.
oMake sure there was order on the streets. Particularly concerned
about thieves and the damage of storefront.
oThe function of the watch has to be understood more
functionally: make sure gate was secure, there was order on the
street, dangerous time to wander streets in London in the 18th
century, so we have to understand the watch in a broader sense,
see it as a deliberate undertaking to enforce common standards
within the community and also to protect the community from
internal and external predators. The purpose was to ENFORCE
COMMON STANDARDS IN COMMUNITY AND FROM
oPolicing is a much older function than this creation of a
specialized police force devoted to this task.
oThe activity of policing precedes the creation of a distinct body of
professionals by thousands of years.
oPhenomenon of policing is ancient.
oLinked to order maintenance
oLook at basic features of early policing and the argument is they
haven’t totally disappeared.
o1) Early policing did not always involve coercion. It shows
interpersonal mediation was the first means of settling disputes.
o2) The crucial who were legally endowed with policing endowed
with policing responsibility, and who actually carried the
policing responsibility. Policing usually belong to the social elite,
and came from quite diverse backgrounds. Might be sketchy
But now modernism, now the state is providing for them: talking things like education, healthcare, law and order, court and justice system, and their safety. In the united kingdom, the beginning of the modern welfare state is. Conquest of england: i t is initiated in 1066-by william the conqueror the king of, significant event: Normandy most powerful monarchies of europe with a sophisticated governmental system. Going to divide groups of adults men into 10 and we"re going to hav tythings, each of the group of 10 has its own representative. Every representative was responsible to his fellow shire-reeve ---the shire-reeve is going to become the sheriff eventually: elements of the tything-man system is going to change, but not completely abandon. Some of the roles change; for example, the tything represative became the parish constable, the parish constable was responsible for the sheriff or the justice of the peace: very widly established system in the 17th and 18th century.