WDW370H1 Lecture 9

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Woodsworth College Courses

1 WDW370H1 March 19, 2012 Lecture 9 Research paper: important when submitting paper that you are clear and confident about thesis statement or research question. Make sure it‟s clear and a statement or research question that you can address in the paper. Make sure that you position that statement early on in paper – first paragraph. No later than first page. Points you address should all address that thesis statement. Points that you feel might be missing you should include them. If you have repeated yourself pay attention to that and make sure that all of your paper is positioned in a logical way – one paragraph follows. Not a problem if you want to use headings – one every couple of pages. Make sure you properly cite material. If you say crime rates go up or down, males more than females, should have a source. If talking about statistics try using stats can – Juristat articles or the Daily Have you supported thesis statement? Evidence you include in paper should convince reader your thesis statement is on track? When moving from one topic to the other have some bridging sentences “now it‟s time to look at this” Vary sentence lengths. Don‟t use textbook but look for sources that she mentions. Avoid “I think, I suppose, etc” When commenting on policy implications: how does your research – is it critical of current policy, is it supportive of it, etc – make sure you reflect there and make sure you are consistent with what your paper argues and what you state in policy implications. May want to think of future research/reflect upon this. (Policy implications no more than a page). Media attention: draw from that is newspapers, television/electronic or print media – gives paper some context. If reflected in media it means public probably knows about it. Don‟t treat the media as a scholarly source. Don‟t use press as evidence to support your argument unless it comes from stats Canada. 10 pages (can go onto 11 page if necessary), 12 pt. font. In bibliography make sure everything is alphabetical and make sure pages are numbered, but not title page. Bibliography should only include works cited (APA or Chicago). Will be handed back last day of class, probably. Youth and Corrections – third lecture looking at social reaction of youth crime, looking at police, etc, next week looking at new alternatives for dealing with youth YCJA and Custody: most traditional way youth have been dealt with. How YCJA changed rules of custody compared to JDA/YOA. Looking at differences between YOA and YCJA. YCJA is really meant to use custody as last resort. Language used in the act is least restrictive measures so custody obviously is the most restrictive measure. Custody is only supposed to be used in last instance or severe cases. Looking at today, that is sort of happening to some extent. Another thing to think about is the different punishment principles – come out strongest under YCJA – crime control and rehabilitation, probably the most dominant ones that appear in the act, in commentary and research that is looked at. One difference between YOA and YCJA, 2 it‟s more a change in language and practice. Under YOA two forms of custody, open and closed custody. Open custody would be a custodial sentence where a young person could be sent to a group home kind of environment where they are placed in a facility where there are no bars on windows, no correctional officers, open sort of concept, where there are rules, regulations, etc but it‟s not a jail whereas closed custody is a jail/prison, there are bars, and cells and correctional officers. Now it‟s really provincial directors rather than courts under YCJA are more involved in looking at different security levels young person could be placed, in past it was open or closed custody. Now system is more regulated in terms of the security a young person may place themselves in. It‟s sort of brought down to a level where more thought goes into it compared to the past. Now we got this kid, this is what they‟ve done, this is their past, they have been given custodial sentence, where should we put them? 3 general programs/places to put people under YCJA: - General which is where most kids end up - Offence specific - Offender specific The latter two always mutually exclusive but they do make rationales for placing people/type of crime they did or the kind of person that has committed the crime. Is this a person who is troubled for example? Looking at offender profile opposed to offence profile. More thought today going into where children should be placed. Other conditions under YOA are conditional orders in community after custody. Young people in past under JDA and YOA once released from custody, not often were they given much supervision in community when they reentered the community. This has changed. Reason why this has changed is cause research in Canada has shown, one of best predictors of a young person reoffending is level of supervision after custody. Research has shown that if you discharge young person who has no strong social supports, money or social capital, etc they will drift into who they were hanging with before and get into trouble again so this supervised „parole‟ is meant to reintegrate young person in community, in terms of education, housing and employment – whose going to hire a 17 year old who has just been released from jail? One of the more reasonable efforts is trying to get the young person back in school and if possible reintegrating them with their family. Does the kid have a learning disability, fetal alcohol syndrome (especially in aboriginal community research shows a lot of aboriginal kids who get into contact with CJS have FAS). A Statistical Profile – One thing that has changed – getting into statistics to some degree is difference with youth who are going to custody today for violent offences opposed to property offences. Violent vs. Property in 98-99 (YOA) and 08 and 09 (five years after YCJA) – violence in ‟98 22% of youth incarcerated for violent crimes, it is now 39%. Opposed to property, used to be 42%, it‟s gone down now to 27%? Why is this happening? Could be due to redefining. Also turning away more property offenders (being diverted) under YCJA, whereas under YOA may have been getting more custodial sentences. Number of youth who are going to custody today for neither violent nor property – kids given probation under YOA – going to jail for administrative offences. Provincial variation exists for these trends. For example in Quebec, custody is used less frequently. The duration of custody in some provinces is relatively short whereas in other provinces it‟s considerably longer. Getting few younger people going to custody but what hasn‟t changed is until very recently there‟s been this drop in sentence custody but there‟s been an increase in remand custody. 3 There are more young people today going to remand than was the case under YOA. Why is this happening? Under what conditions can a judge or justice of peace put a young offender in remand custody? Flight risk or going to go out and reoffend. There‟s been an increase in remand the last few years – same thing going on with adult pop. Unclear as to why that is the case. Maybe they are enforcing the conditions for remand, if you‟re out on bail and you do things that are wrong and no one knows it, you go to your court date and your fine, if out on bail before court date – on bail given conditions, can end up in remand if you don‟t follow those conditions. So maybe it‟s because police are enforcing bail conditions more rigoursly now compared to the past. One of the things about remand is, especially for young people, you are not in there very long – 1% is there for more than 6 months. About half of them are released within a week. Under YCJA young person could be put into custody for set of circumstances, these include: - Judge can put young person in custody if they have committed a serious violent offence – armed robbery or aggravated assault, if those are the conviction then there‟s good chance young person will end up in custody - Failure to comply for a community sentence. In other words person was given probation and they breached it under administrative reasons – could be sentenced to custody - Commission of an offence for which an adult would be liable for prison for 2 years – if a young person committed an offence that an adult would be liable for a 2yr. What does that bring up? – No discretion, mandatory minimum. With more mandatory minimums for adults under new legislation and this law stays the same then you‟ll get more young people going to jail because of these mandatory minimums. - History that indicates a pattern of findings of guilt – have some priors. Most youth sent to custody in Canada under YCJA spent less than 6 months. Females compared to Males and Aboriginals compared to Non-Aboriginals Aboriginals are overrepresented. Female vs. Male Females are the minority in the youth justice system. If you look at females compared to males in youth system. It‟s male dominated problem. The interesting thing is that when you compare youth system to differences with women vs. men in adult system, 12% of all women incarcerated 18 and older are in some custody facility, it‟s considerably lower than custody levels for youth (17%). 13% of all remand adults are women compared to 21% girls, and for adults 18% on probation are women whereas ¼ in the youth system are girls. Women in youth system are more engaged
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