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Woodsworth College Courses
Sandra Bucerius

W5 WDW383H The Netherlands Think of the Netherlands as quite progressive, we would assume they are open to immigrants but tis other wise. They never thought of themselves as an immigration country, only in 1998. In terms of research in immigration one of the most interesting country, they have a concept of multiculturalism, it had radically changed in recent years Until about 1965 it was perceived as a country of emigration. Four immigration waves, of  Indonesians in 1949 (very well integrated in the Netherlands and are assimilated to the Dutch community/ when they arrived 5% of the newly built house were put at there disposal, and had full citizen right since a former colony)  Guest workers system (after 2 world war, economy booming and there was a shortage of labour so recruited from other countries), Italy, Spain, Turkey, and Morocco. Bilateral agreement signed by both country/ set up recruitment offices in the countries/ the idea was to accumulate money in short time and go back to your own country (it wasn’t a permanent idea) problem, they didn’t accumulate as much money as hope and they brought their family over to the Netherlands o Europe was not prepared for this immigration and no education system was there to educate them/ never intended for them to stays and integration programs were not in place o Most of Spain and Italy left back to there countries/ so faced with a big group of Turkish and Moroccan stayed (different implication and if left couldn’t get back to the Netherlands)  Third wave that came from the Surinam  4 wave of refugees and asylum seekers after 1985 Up into the 90s immigrants essentially from 5 countries. Now a days, immigrants from the EU countries 20%, the 5 majors its 25% and other countries 55%  Definition of immigrant for Dutch: somebody who ahs a parent who has at least on parent who was born abroad  Difference of immigrant from western and non-western immigrants  Past years Netherland saw an increase from immigrant of non-western/ in the last 15 years, people with different status are coming (asylum seekers went down, and the number from illegals and extend visa  new act didn’t accept as much asylum seekers, but they still stayed and became illegals) Attitude toward immigration  In the 80s, integration was preserving ethnic identities/ emphasis on self organization and concept of pillarization (different people exist in a form of pillars and each of them have it’s own government funding and it’s own school, organization… and financed by the state) Dutch offered language course is interested, but they still had the choice of which language to learn o Not much contact within the pillars. o Citizenship law (Indonesia and Surinam automatically)(see slide)  1984 nationality act: 3 generation obtain nationality and 2 (see slide). 1 st generation could also naturalize if they played the fee and were 18 and unlimited resending permit (see slide)  Multiculturalism in the Netherlands just means that ethnic minorities co- existed that’s it, there was no interaction  the flip side, it strengthens social isolation, and increase unemployment. The process of segregation was becoming stronger; at the end of 90s it was difficult to reverse everything.  When realized that immigrants were staying, they had to change policies, but no wanted to talk about it. In the 90’s  Deep recession, and changed the official standpoint on immigrants. A second phase and the Dutch noticed there idea of multiculturalism no longer works and just co-existing was not a good idea  Introducing labour market participation, mandatory language course/ shift toward an active citizenship and individual responsibilities (more voice in the political arena that urge immigrant that should make an effort to assimilate to the Dutch society)  Moral dimension of integration and emphasis on shared values, obligation to learn Dutch and the Dutch culture, much more stricter laws on citizenship and marriage policies (test for knowledge of Dutch and the Dutch culture)  Migration law changed in the sense that they
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