WDW205 Lecture 8 11/19/2012
Gender Differences in Crime and Criminal Justice Outcomes
Limitations of the theories, why some crimes fit better to one theory then the others
- How much female crime is there?
- How does the extent and nature of female crime compare to male crime?
- Is female crime increasing?
- Is female crime increasing at a faster rate than male crime?
- Is female crime change?
Percent of Violent Crimes Committed by Male and Female Offenders in Canada, 2003 UCR
- Male dominant in violent crimes, homicide, attempted murder, assaults, sexual
assaults and robbery
- Women 58% in abduction (custody wise, taking their children into hiding)
Percent of Property Crimes Committed by Male and Female Offenders in Canada,
2003 UCR Statistics
- Huge overrepresentation in property crimes in regards to males
Percent of “Other” Crimes Committed by Male and Female Offenders in Canada, 2003 UCR
- Male dominant in other crimes, mischief, arson, weapon, impaired driving and drug
- Prostitution has a close parody between male 51%, female 49%
Proportion of all Crimes, by Crime Type and Gender, 2003 UCR Statistics
Trends in Female Crime – 1962-1996
- Huge increase of crime in early 1960s to 1970s
- Violence is growing at a steady rate
- These changes does not actually reflect female offenders actual behavior, but may
reflect how females are being treated by the justice system
- Mental justice system, not criminal justice system> women being treated
- Minor assault levels, not homicide
- Male to female ratio, significant conversion
Male to Female Crime Ratios, 1962-1996
- Officially recorded crime a conversion, the rates of male offenders are still higher,
but the profound change is not as high then it was before, ratio of 9:1
- Women are now being charged with assault even in domestic assaults
Percent of High School Students Who Report Engaging in Various Crimes Over the Past
Year, by Gender, 2000 Toronto Youth Crime Survey
- Gender differences in criminality are highly profound in high school, but in street
youths, males and females have the same rates of criminality
- When looking at crime rates in high school and street youths, the differences in
percent change are almost not the case anymore
- Different levels of parental supervision may be a factor - Genders differences are not uniform along all societies
Percent of High School Students Who Report Using Tobacco, Alcohol and Illicit Drugs at
Least Once Per Week in the Past Year, by Gender 2000 Toronto Youth Crime Survey
- Males participated more frequently in using tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs
- In street youths, the differences are not as profound, also found that female 31% use
illicit drugs over males 22%
Explaining the Gender Gap in Crime
- Biological Theories
- Evolutionary Theories
o Males wanting to display their domination
- Social Learning Theories (Sex Roles)
o Are males and females socialized differently?
o Females may be under more supervision compared to males
o Females playing with teddies and Barbie’s, males playing with toys
- The Women’s “Liberation” or the “Sex-Role Convergence” Thesis.
o Women are taught to be aggressive to gain what she wants which may lead to
o Women crimes are still concentrated in property crime including minor theft
Violence Against Women In Canada
Who’s at greater risk of violent victimization, females or males?
- Based on official statistics, females and males have approximately equal risks of
violent victimization, when considering all types of violence.
- Males, however, are at greater risk of serious violent victimization, according to
– For example, men outnumber women as victims of homicide in Canada by a
ratio of 3:1
Official Homicide Statistics
- In 2007, there were 594 victims of homicide in Canada: 432 (73%) were male; 162
(27%) were female.
- In 2007, there were 527 known homicide offenders in Canada: 474 (90%) were
male; 53 (10%) were female.
- 95% of female victims were killed by males; 30% of male victims were killed by
females. (when females die of violent crimes they die in the hands of males)
- 6.7% of Canadian males reported at least one violent victimization in the previous
year, compared to 6.4% of women.
- 45% of women were victimized by a current or former intimate partner, compared
to only 10% of males.
- Males are more likely than females to be victimized by friends (60% vs. 35%) or by
strangers (20% vs. 7%).
Spousal Violence in Canada
- 7% of women and 6% of men reported at least one act of violence by a partner in
the past 5 years.
- But women reported much more serious types of violence from their partners.
- Types of intimate partner violence: 1) Common couple violence; 2) Systemic Abuse;
and 3) Patriarchal Terrorism. - Female employed, male unemployed > male systemic abuse
- Patriarchal Terrorism > visits to the hospital, hospitalization
Intimate Partner Homicide
- In 2007, of the 162 female victims of homicide, 40% were killed by an intimate
- In 2007, of the 432 male victims of homicide, only 5% were killed by intimate
o A male partner killing their male partner (homosexual)
Common Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Homicide (for both females and males)
• Aboriginal status
• History of violence in the relationship
• Partner has a criminal record
Additional Risk Factors for Females
- Victim initiation or participation in the violence.
• Males will kill their partners when they don’t want them to leave
• Females will kill their partners when they want to escape the violence and
- The extent of the violence
• Females killing males, a single a