WDW383H1 Lecture 9.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Woodsworth College Courses

1 WDW383H1 Immigration and Crime November 22, 2012 Lecture 9 Today we‟re going to talk about illegal immigration, mainly in Europe and then we‟ll talk about deportations in the U.S. and Canada Illegal Immigration in the EU - European Commission estimated between 4.5 and 8 million illegals or “irregulars” in the beginning of the 2000s o More recently they announced a much lower figure than that. - Clandestino research team estimated that there are between 2.8 and 6 million illegals (2008) - Lower figure is the result of the expansion of the EU with eight countries in 2004 and two additional countries in 2007 o A lot of illegal immigrants became legal overnight, a lot of countries joined the EU and became legal – Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Rep, Hungary, Estonia, Slovenia + Malta and Cyprus  Basically over night they became a part of EU. There were many western European countries that had illegal immigrants residing in them who basically came from one of those 8 countries. So those illegals overnight became legals o Bulgaria and Romania joined in 2007 - A large number of illegals who were residing illegally in the older EU countries were legalized over night Illegal Immigration in the Future Whether or not that decrease is permanent is an open question  - Fertility rates relatively low, working population is aging – thus, countries dependent on work force - Need for work force is often met through illegal immigrants - Policies for granting asylum are very restrictive in most EU countries – thus, asylum seekers whose claimants have been rejected often become illegals What will happen in the future years is there will remain a demand for low skilled labour workers Of the four countries we‟ve looked at this semester, Netherlands, Germany, US and Canada – the one with lowest fertility rate is Germany. Being somewhat dependent on new illegal immigrants means that new groups of illegal immigrants might be created in the future, especially if strict immigration policies will be continued in the EU. In many ways a EU without illegal immigration is unimaginable because many people come, work there, overstay their visa, and because there‟s huge demand for unskilled labour… Foggy social structures defined as social structures that reemerge from efforts of individuals and organizations to avoid production of knowledge about their activities by making them unobservable or undeterminable. In other words the practical production of fog. What they essentially want to say is links b/w legal and illegal immigrants exists but are contradicting forces. 2 - Legal and illegal residents are often interlinked, e.g., regular employers employing irregular immigrants through illegitimate temporary work agencies etc. - Contradicting social, economical and structural forces at play o State is “officially” against immigration, thus employers must be “officially” against it as well. However, unofficially many stakeholders also have much in favour for illegal immigration.  Individual employers can‟t officially say we want illegal immigrants to work for us  Even though they‟re officially against illegal immigration, they depend on them. So employers may hire them but they are trying to hide that they are doing this – Engersen refers to this as foggy social structure. - “Fog” is being created in an effort to “hide” this link Different Strategies to respond to Illegal Immigration in the EU – government‟s respond to the presence of illegal immigrants in different ways - First: to accept and tolerate illegal residence for economic and partly humanitarian reasons (characteristic of most Western-European countries in the 1970-1990) - Second: to convert the illegal into legal citizens through legalization programs (mainly a Southern European approach). They essentially legalized, illegal immigrants. - Third: “Fortress Europe” (dominant in most welfare states since the 1990s) Features of Fortress Europe - Growing militarization of the EUs external border o Very specific borders, Morocco/Spanish enclave border, etc. it‟s highly militarized. In 2004, the EU was enlarged – 4000 km of new borders, so they are highly militarized. Because border is so large it‟s hard to provide tight border control o There‟s also a growing internal control – referred to as responsibilization strategies  - Immigration control is expanding towards the “outside” (third countries) as well as to the “inside” (David Garland‟s “responsibilization strategies”). – police, states, etc are all responsible for protecting countries from the inside. The responsibility of controlling immigration is basically put away from the state and given to individuals, employers and actors within the country. o Excluding them from public services, work market, health services, etc. o Tracing identification and detention of illegals, making employers pay for hiring illegals. o Also, asylum-seekers are tracked, as they could become illegal immigrants if the asylum is not granted - Steep increase in detention capacity to facilitate the identification and expulsion of apprehended illegal immigrants o Supposed to eventually deport illegal immigrants back into their home countries. - Fortress Europe is in essence a deterrent strategy against illegal immigration. Still it is not perfect for a number of reasons. 3 - Netherlands considered the “donjon” because they get more immigration than other countries, also authors are both Dutch may play into this. Problems with the Fortress Europe - Many jobs filled by illegal immigrants are hard to fill otherwise o Also happening in the states - Many of the detained illegal migrants are never effectively expelled from the country – numbers of people expelled are even decreasing o Less than 50% of detained illegal immigrants are effectively deported o Decreasing began before the expansion of the EU - Requires substantial financial and human costs and social problems on the terrain of criminal justice Implications for Criminal Justice because it has become much more difficult to cross borders into EU there‟s been  - Increase in smuggling, that‟s one consequence we see in CJ domain. - Link between intensified border control and increased fatalities – the intensivied controls have led to longer journeys in terms of getting into EU, but also longer journeys under more dangerous circumstances. So the number of people who do not survive their trips has increased in recent years o Number of fatalities reported by NGO united varies b/w 770 and 1300 a year, in 2002-2006 period. o Actual numbers are much more higher than those documented - Emerging undocumented outsider class residing in EU countries that is at risk of – higher victimization o Less likely to report if they are victimized, and have lower life chances  Risk detention, May not trust police  More likely to reside in countries with concentrated high crime - Major increase in “residence crime”, ie use of false IDs and subsistence crimes o In most EU countries there are ID cards and you‟re supposed to wear them at all times. If you don‟t have ID card on you and you‟re stopped you have to pay a fine. Illegal residents obviously don‟t have these, so there‟s increase in fake ID cards Deportation in Canada - Based on Immigration and Refugee Protection Act - Done by Canada border services Agency (CBSA) - Three types of removal order: o Departure order – leave country in 30 days
More Less

Related notes for WDW101Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.