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University of Victoria
ANTH 100
Mc Guire

ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes WEEK no.6: ARCHAEOLOGY October 6 – 12, 2013 Readings:  Tuesday, October 8, 2013 o Ch.6 pages 152 – 165  Wednesday, October 9, 2013 o Ch.6 pages 165 – 177 ***Everything after this point will be on the final exam Typology of Sociopolitical Organisation:  Band, tribe, chiefdom, and state o Bands, tribes, and chiefdoms known archaeologically to exist prior to states - Elman Service (1962) Sociopolitical Organisms  Bands: small kin-based groups found amoung foragers  Tribes: non-intensive food based production (horticulture and pastoralism)  Chiefdom: intermediate between tribe and state o Kin-based o Permanent political structure and differential access to resources (wealth, presige, power)  State: formal government and socioeconomic stratification Subsistence Strategies:  Different ways that people in different societies go about meeting their basic material survival needs. Adaptive Strategies:  Adaptive strategy describes a society’s’ system of economic production ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Foraging  Hunting  Gathering o Cultivation  Horticulture  Agriculture o Pastoralism o Industrialism Economic and Sociopolitical Organization Correlations:  Foragers tend to have band organization  Horticulturalists and pastoralists tend to have tribal organization  Chiefdoms and nonindustrial states usually have agriculture economies Adaptive Strategies:  All humans – foragers until 10 000 B.P.  Modern foragers at least partially dependent on food production or food producers  Foraging survives mainly marginal environments  Gender-based division of labour o Exists in virtually ALL human societies  Among foragers: o Males typically hunt and fish, women gather and collect o Gathering tends to contribute more to the diet than hunting and fishing do More of Cohen’s Typology…  Three adaptive strategies based on food production in non-industrial societies: Cultivation: Horticulture:  Horticulture = Cultivation that does not make intensive use of land, labour, capital, or machinery o Simple tools, slash-and-burn techniques o Exhausted fields left to fallow o Extensive agriculture o Women can be heavily involved in this Cultivation: Agriculture  Agriculture = Cultivation that involves intensive and continuous use of land o More labour intensive o Domesticated animals o Irrigation o Terracing ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Women more likely to be excluded from this Pastoralism  Pastoralist activities focus on domesticated animals o i.e. cattle, sheep, goats, camels, yak, and reindeer  Symbiotic relationship  Direct use of animals for food  Supplement diets by hunting, gathering, fishing, cultivating, or trading Neolithic  Neolithic: Fist cultural period in region in which first signs of domestication are present  Neolithic Revolution: transition from hunting/gathering to farming (G. Childe)  Sedentism  Village/town life  Labour diversification  Expansion of trade  Development of states Overview 12,000 – 10,000 B.P. Semi-nomadic hunting and gathering 10,000 – 7500 B.P. Dry farming (what andbarley) and caprine domestication Increasingly specialized food production 7500 – 5500 B.P. Domestication of cattle, pigs, new crops More productive varieties of wheat and barley ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes WEEK no. 7: DAWN OF FARMING & SETTLING October 13 – 19, 2013 Readings:  Wednesday, October 16, 2013 o Ch.6 pages 161 – 165 o Ch.7 pages 180 – 194  Friday, October 18, 2013 o Ch.6 pages 194 – 211 First Farmers Why did humans settle down, build cities and establish states? **Film:  While you watch the film clip, make a list of the pros and cons for settling down and farming Pros Cons Skara Brea, Scotland From Last time: Neolithic: fist cultural period in region in which first region in which first signs of domestication are present Neolithic Revolution: transition from hunting/gathering to farming (G.Childe)  Sedentism  Village/town life  Labour diversification  Expansion of trade  Development of states ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Overview 12,000 – 10,000 B.P. Semi-nomadic hunting and gathering 10,000 – 7500 B.P. Dry farming (what andbarley) and caprine domestication Increasingly specialized food production 7500 – 5500 B.P. Domestication of cattle, pigs, new crops More productive varieties of wheat and barley Case Study: The Natufians  Foragers in Middle East o 12,500 – 10,500 B.P.  Collected wild grains & hunted gazelles  Nedded storage and therefore established villages o Hilly Flanks zone  Became sedentary  Begin to cultivate grains The First Farmers and Herders in the Middle East  Around 11,000 B.P. – drier climate, zone of abundant wild grains shrank o People adopted new subsistence strategy, including food production o Prior to domestication, Hilly Flanks zone had densest human population o Domestication meant survival in marginal zones  Seasonal Migrations and trade linked environmental zones o Movement of people, animals, and products between zones was a precondition for the emergence of food production o Mutation, genetic recombination’s, and human selection led to new kinds of wheat and barley  Domesticated crops: o Larger seeds o Higher yield per unit of area o Loss of natural seed dispersal mechanisms o Tougher connective tissue (axes) holding seedpods to the stem o More brittle husks  Domesticated animals: o Smaller than wild animals o Other traits selected by humans  E.g. woolly coats in sheep  Food production and the state ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Gradual transition from foraging to food production o Effects of food production  Population increase  Resulting migrations o By 6000 B.P. – complex irrigation systems  Agriculture became possible in south o Around 5500 B.P. – Mesopotamian state arose The Vertical Economy of the Ancient Middle East  High plateau  Hilly Flanks  Piedmont Steppe  Alluvial Desert Domestication & Niche Construction  Niche Construction: when an organism actively changes its environment or a new environment o Domestication of plants and animals is a form of niche construction because:  A) reproduction of local species is interfered with by human action  B) Human action changes local environmental settings What are the signs of Animal Domestication?  Can you come up with some possibilities? Six stages of animal domestication 1. Random hunting 2. Controlled hunting 3. Herd following 4. Loose herding 5. Close herding 6. Factory farming Other Old World Farmers  Path from foraging to farming followed independently in at least seven world areas  Crops and animals originally domesticated in the Middle East spread to northern Africa (including Egypt), Europe, India, and Pakistan (Indus River Valley)  Around 8000 B.P. communities on Europe’s Mediterranean shores shifting from foraging to farming using imported species  Presence of domesticated goats, sheep, cattle, wheat, and barley in Pakistan around same time ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  CHINA: o Northern China (Yellow River):  Two varieties of millet cultivated by 7500 BP  Dogs, pigs, and possibly cattle, goats, and sheep, domesticated by 7000 B.P. o Southern China (Yangtze River):  Rice cultivated perhaps as early as 8400 B.P.  Water buffalo, dogs, and pigs domesticated by 7000 B.P. The First American Farmers Americas  Early Native Americans occupied variety of environments o Independently invented food production o States based on agriculture and trade in Mexico and Peru o Animal domestication, more importing in Old World than New World  Animal domestication less important than in New World than Old World o Large game animals extinct or not domesticable o Domesticated New World animals included llamas, alpacas, guinea pigs, ducks, turkeys, and dogs Explaining the Neolithic  Development of full-fledged Neolithic economy required settling down  Required several species of plants and animals o Environment (Middle East) o Genetic changes to crops  Not universal and not simultaneous  Geography and explaining the spread of food production: o Most crops in Eroasia domesticated once and spread rapidly in the east-west direction  Commonly day lengths  Similar climates o Environmental barriers kept Neolithic societies more separate in the Americas, the Middle East, and Africa Setting Down  Why did humans settle down, build cities, and establish states? Urban life  First towns arose around 10,000 years ago on the Middle-East  Earliest – Jericho o Associated with Natufian foragers ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  Long-distance trade, especially of obsidian, important between 9500 and 7000 BP ***Example: Çatalhöyük, Anatolia (Turkey)  8000 – 7000 BP  10,000 people o Largest settlement of the Neolithic o Residents operated in family groups without apparent political elite o Basic SW Asian Neolithic diet (wheat, barley, peas, almonds, acorns, sheep, cattle, wild game?)  Trade: o Export: Obsidian o Import: flint(Syria), shells (Mediterranean), copper? o Craft production, Stone figurines, tools, vessels, beads (also copper & lead), Woven textiles, Pottery, Grinding equipment & other tools, Ochre & other pigments  Religion o 40 shrines o Repainting of walls o Aurochs imagery o States o Burial beneath floors o Complex belief system  Time-consuming practices  Ritual practices at a more personal level  i.e. practically at home, rather than in a temple & no central control  Questions: o Social status:  Sex or gener?  Age?  Religious role?  Hunter-gathers = egalitarian?  Early villagers & towns = egalitarian  Early states = socially stratified… o What happened?!? The Origin of State  Sate: form of social political organization with formal, central government and social stratification  Chiefdoms precursors to states  State formation has generalized rather than universal causes  Attributes of States o Controls specific territories ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Productive farming economies o Used tribute and taxation o Stratified into social classes o Imposing public building and monumental architecture o Developed some form of record-keeping system State Formation in the Middle East – Rise of the State  Uruk period (6000-5200 B.P.) established Mespotamia as “cradle of civilization”  Writing developed to keep accounts (cuneiform)  Writing and temples key roles in Mespotamian economy  Temples managed herding, farming, manufacture, storage, trade Rise of Social Elites  Luxury goods  Elaborate burial  Monumental architecture Social Ranking  Egalitarian Society: most typical among foragers, lacks status distinctions expect for those based on age, gender, and individual qualities, talents, and achievements o Ranked Society: have hereditary inequality o Social Stratification: sharp social divisions based on unequal access wealth and power Mesopotamia – An Early Sate  Cradle of Civilisation  Large scale food production  Trade and travel  Cities & kings  Specialised labour  Social stratification  Used to keep accounts o i.e. Connected to trade  Both Sumerian and Akkadian were written in cuneiform  Seems to have started in Sumer (S.Mesopotamia)  Massive temples (ziggurats )  Investment of time and labour  Placed in the city centre  Stratification of access? ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Craft Specialisms: Metallurgy  knowledge of properties of metals, including extraction, processing, and manufacture of metal tools  Rapid evolution of metallurgy after 5000 B.P.  Bronze Age: bronze became common, extended use of metals  Iron Age: high-temperature iron smelting mastered and spread rapidly after 3200 B.P Consequences  What are the consequences of sedentism and domestication? o Land becomes property o Population increases o Environmental changes o Inter-dependancy of plants & people  Susceptible to crop failure  Labour intensive  Vermin, nutritional deficiencies & disease ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes WEEK no. 8: CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, PLAY & ART October 20 – 26, 2013 Readings:  Tuesday, October 22, 2013 o Module 3: Ethnographic Methods pages 231 – 235 o Editorial:  Wednesday, October 23, 2013 o Module 3: Ethnographic Methods pages 235 – 243 o Editorial:  Friday, October 25, 2013 o Ch.9 Symbolic Practices and Worldviews pages 268 – 273 o Ch.10 Play & Art pages 283 - 293 Cultural Anthropology  How do Cultural Anthropologists Learn about Contemporary Ways of Life? Early Participant- Observation  Bronislaw Maliknowski  Trobriand Islands, Papua New Guinea  Stranded by WW1  Kula Ring, sailing magic, etc. Multi-Site Fieldwork  Multi-site Fieldwork: Ethnographic research on cultural processes that are not contained by social, ethnic, religious, or national boundaries, in which the ethnic religious, or national boundaries, in which ethnographer follows the process from site to site, often doing fieldwork at sites and with persons who traditionally were never subjected to ethnographic analysis.  New trend – go to more than one location  Follow cultural phenomena wherever they lead  Help understand many cultural processes that link people, things and lives, etc. National Geographic Film: Taboo – Rites of Passage  Discuss the film… o What were the strengths of the episode? o What were the weaknesses (or issues) associated with it? ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Successful Fieldwork  Anthropologists who think about the way they think about other cultures  Informants who reflect on the way they and others in their society think and try to convey their insights to the anthropologists  Reflexive approach  Fieldworkers and informants work together to construct an intersubjective world of meaning. Discussions  Why is it important to understand the politics of the community as an ethnographer before you align yourself with particular people?  What affect can bad alliances have on your research?  What ethical responsibility did Raimundo Roberto feel that Crocker had to the Canela community?  How did this affect Roberto personally? Reflexivity  Reflexivity: Critically thinking about the ways one thinks, reflecting on one’s own experience  Not just for Anthropologists! o Teachers, professors, nurses, social workers, etc. Situated Knowledge  Identifying who you are, as the ethnographer  Has to be part of your report o Where are you from All might affect what you think and say! o What social class are you o Gender, ethnicity, education, politics When communication between anthropologist and informant is ruptured, learning about another culture is often greatest. ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Ruptures  When intersubjective understanding prove inadequate  Cound end reseach  Could teach you so much more Example: Jean Briggs & the Utku Inuit  Utkuhikhalingmiut  Adopted by her informants  Taught her to be a good daughter  Conflict over outsiders and canoes  The thriving Utku camp at Back River on a typical day in the early 1960s, in a photo taken by Briggs. The Utku treated Briggs as kin, teaching her their ways and traditions. Fieldwork and Change  Changes both researcher and informants  Sometimes anthropologists deliberately work towards social change  Sometimes they are just there to study and understand Cultural ‘Facts’  Because cultural meanings are intersubjectively constructed during fieldwork, cultural facts do not speak for themselves  You have to interpret/translate them and put them into context What makes interpretation and translation possible?  The dialect of fieldwork: o Dialect of Fieldwork: The process of building a bridge of understanding between anthropologists and informants so that each can begin to understand the other. o Both fieldworker and informant begin with little or nothing in terms of shared experience o But! They engage in dialogue with each other about activities going on around them Collaborative ethnographic writing: ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Important Case Study Example Ethical Challenge  Kelly received a National Institute of Mental Health grant for research in the Western Tropics. As part of her personal gear, she took along a considerable amount of medication, which her physician had prescribed for use, should Kelly find herself in an active malaria region. Later, after settling into a village, Kelly became aware that many of the local people were quite ill with malaria.  Kelly's Dilemma: Since she had such a large supply of medication, much more than she needed for her personal use, should she distribute the surplus to her hosts? A. Yes, she has a surplus and has a moral responsibility. B. Yes, but only if she has enough for everyone. C. No, she might put her own health at risk. D. No, she might put their health at risk. E. No, she might put her research at risk.  Kelly’s choice: No o Doesn’t make them immune o There would be more outbreaks o Need to develop their own resistance  Responses from other Anthropologists o Malaria kills and when it doesn’t, it still sucks. Help people. o She’s an anthropologist, not a medical doctor. She shouldn’t even be considering dispensing drugs. o She should have consulted a doctor and those affected. If aid was asked, she should have given it. Making Meaning  Symbols, Play, Art & Religion Symbol  Symbol: Something that stands for something else  A symbol signals the presence of an important domain of experience Openness  Openness: “the ability to understand the same thing from different points of view” – Ortony1979 Play  What is play? o A generalized form of behavioural openness o A way of organizing activities o May be critical to the development of cognitive motor skills ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  How and when do we play? o When you were a child, what form of play did you engage in most often? o As an adult, do you play? In what ways?  Why do we play? o As an adult, why do you play?  What do we think about play? o Framing: is a congnitive boundary between “play” and “ordinary life” o Play and non-play activities must be signaled clearly to participants o Play Frame: represents the period when individuals are consciously engaged in play Art  How do you define are?  How do you think this may be affected by your culture?  What do you not consider to be art and why?  What is Art: o A form of creative play o Subject to cultural restrictions on form and content o Artistic Rules: direct attention to the form of activities or objects  Example: Vietnams Veterans’ Memorial o Two large black walls  Inscribed names of all who died, in order of death o Objection:  Unconventional  “black gash of shame”  Permits were initially denied  Is it art? ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Is it Art?  Art by Intention: objects that were made to be art  Art by Appropriation: all other objects that “become art” when defined so by others  Both a negative and a positive… Why? Art and play are creative, meaningful, and part of being human Next week we look at the relationships between ritual, religious practices, and making meaning. ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes WEEK no.9: RELIGION & RITES OF PASSAGE October 27 – November 2, 2013 Readings:  Tuesday, October 29, 2013 o Ch 10: Myth & Ritual pages 293 – 299  Wednesday, October 30, 2013 o Guest speaker: Genevieve von Petzinger  read:  Friday, November 1, 2013 o Ch.10 What is Religion? pages 300 - 311 Myths  Myths: Stories whose truth seems self-evident because they reflexively integrate personal experiences with a wider set of assumptions about the way the world works  How do myths reflect and shape societies? o Myths are part of social contexts o Myths justify present-day social arrangements o Myths are tools for overcoming logical contradictions Worldviews  Encompassing pictures of reality created by the members of societies  Religion: “Ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses” (Bowen 2008) Art of the Aborigines  What aspects of worldview and spirituality come through in this clip?  How are spiritual beliefs integrated into life? Rituals  Rituals are: o Repetitive social practice o Formal behaviour performed in sacred places at set times o Sequences of symbolic activities:  Composed of symbolic activities such as speech, singing, dancing, or gestures o Associated with the manipulation of certain objects  Performance is as important to the study of rituals as the symbolic content  Cultural ideas are made concrete through ritual action  Examples: compare these two expressions of ritual of the Bistritsa Babi, Bulgaria and Aka Pygmies, Central Africa ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Bistritsa Babi, Bulgaria  Singing, dancing(diaphony), initiation, traditional costumes  Seen as an important part of cultural life of the region  Traditional cultural expression passed down – only being maintained by a few o Aka Pygmies, Central Africa  Vocal musical tradition – found nowhere else on the African continent  Music & dance linked to all cultural events  i.e. ceremonies, hunting, assembling, and funerals  Polyphonic singing (based on 4 voices), allows for spontaneous expression/improvisation & musical instruments& dancing(inspired by hunting or animal movements)  The songs perpetuate knowledge, considered essential for the cohesion of the group and preservation of community values How are Play and Ritual Related?  Play and ritual are complementary o Play based on metaphor o Ritual based on literalness (belief) Religion  Religion: a type of world view  Recall: “Ideas and practices that postulate a reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses.” (Bowen 2008) A power greater than ourselves  How do we communicate with god (or any cosmic force?) o Complicated and often governed by rules o Can be personal o Can be through intermediaries, like priests or shamans Example: Australia and Oceania Land-Diving in Vanuatu  What are the various components of the ritual that you observe in the video clip? o Dangerous test of faith – land diving o Village elders organize a ritual designed to secure ‘gods’ favour (chief oversees it) o Young men & boys risk their lives – sacrifice for the survival of the community o Animism – believe in a world of spirits that demand offerings o Every april and may o Height – the higher the jump the greater the blessing o Dancing & chanting for support to diver Expressions of Religion ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  Tylor (1871) proposed that religion evolved through three stages 1. Animism 2. Polytheism 3. Monotheism  Powers and Forces: o Supernatural = domain of impersonal power  People can control it under certain circumstances  i.e. with magic o Use of forces:  Witchcraft:  The performance of evil by human beings believed to possess an innate, nonhuman power to do evil, whether or not it is intentional or self- aware.  Example: Azande Witchcraft: - Witchcraft carried in people - Used for evil, but maybe unknowingly - Priest consults oracles through ritual sacrifice - Orace reveals witches - Witchcraft & ill behaviour is punished - All this… and Christian too…  Magic:  A set of beliefs and practices designed to control the visible or invisible world of specific purposes  Oracles:  Invisible forces to which address questions and whose responses they believe to be truthful.  Mana:  Sacred impersonal force that can reside in people, animals, plants, and objects  Beliefs in mana-like forces widespread but sacrifices vary  Polynesia: mana is attached to political offices Bodies and possessions of high chiefs were taboo Kinds of Religion  Wallace: four types of religion 1. Shamanic 2. Communal 3. Olympian 4. Monotheistic Shaman ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  Part-time religious figures o Mediate between people and supernatural beings and forces o Sometimes different or ambiguous sex or gender role  Typically associated with foragers, tribes and communal religions Priest  A religious practitioner skilled in the practice of religious rituals, which he or she carries out for the benefit of the group Religious Behaviours  Religion and magic can help reduce anexiety  People turn to magic as a means of control when they face uncertainty and danger (Malinowski)  Example: o Trobriand Islanders: used magig only in situations they could not control Olympian Religions  Polytheistic with powerful anthropomorphic gods  Permanent priesthood  Pantheon of gods is hierarchical  Often associated with chiefdoms and archaic (non-industrial) states  They first appeared in ancient state societies – why?? Monotheistic Religions  All supernatural phenomena under control of single eternal, omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent supreme being  Have priesthoods  Typically associated with states, but spread through conversions Religion as Social Control  Religious knowledge is not distributed evenly  Those who control such knowledge may use it as an instrument of power  Affects action: o Leveling mechanism: custom or social action that operates to reduce status difference o Ensure proper behaviour through rewards  Many prescribe code of ethics and morality o Taliban (proscriptions) th th o Witch-Hunts (18 and 19 century)  Positives!! ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes o Provides community, social support, common set of values and morals, hope, comfort… etc. o Helps people cope with adversity/tragedy o Can mobilise emotions o Many people engage in religious activity because it seems to work Religion and Change  Syncretism: the synthesis of old religious practices(or an old way of life) with new practices (or a new way of life) introduced from outside, often by force.  All of the following are examples of religions affected by syncretism: o Rastafarianism – bible, Hinduism, Caribbean culture… o Vodou – West Africa, catholic, Caribbean culture… o Christianity – Roman/Judaism (if you look at Saints, were originally gods) o Islam – Christianity with a new prophet  Revitalisation movements: social movements that occur in times of change  Religious leaders emerge and undertake to alter or revitalise a society  Christianity = revitalization movement  Colonial-era Iroquois reformation led by Handsome Lake  Cargo Cults:  look this up on youtube! o Revitalization movements o Traditional communities + outside industrial societies + lack of equality o Indigenous Communities attempt to:  Explain European domination and wealth  Achieve similar success through magic o Cargo cults in Melanesia and Papua New Guinea  Christian doctrine + aboriginal beliefs  Syncretism o Cargo cults emerged as a means of magically leveling Europeans Cave Art – Genevieve von Petzinger Signs and Symbols  Tracking Geometric Rock Art across the Landscape of Ice Age Europe Europe During the Ice Age  Modern humans reach Europe in 40,000 BP  Adapt to Ice Age environments  Climate impacts all aspects of life including culture  Map: ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Modern Humans, Modern Behaviour  Sculptures, instruments, jewelry  i.e. Upper Paleolithic Rock Art  10,000 to 40,000 years ago  A lot of animal images  A few human representations  A large number or geometric signes o The sines outnumber the other imagery by a ratio of 2:1 or greater  When I started my research  How many different signs? ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes  Typology of Non-Figurative Signs  Do the same ones appear across space and time?  Portugal ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes WEEK no.10: KINSHIP & MARRIAGE November 3, 3013 – November 9, 2013 Readings:  Tuesday, November 5, 2013 o Ch 10: World Views pages 307 – 311  Wednesday, November 6, 2013 o Ch 13: What is Family? Pages 386 – 389 o Ch 13: Kinship Terminologies pages 374 – 375  Friday, November 8, 2013 o Ch.13: Ch 13: Marriage (pp. 379-386); plus Dowry Too High. Lose Bride & Go to Jail o Ch 13: Sexual Practices (pp. 396-400) Where do our relatives come from and why do they matter? Kinship chart for descent: Sex versus Gender  Sex (biological) o Observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females, and males, needed for biological reproduction.  Gender (cultural) o The cultural construction of beliefs and behaviours considered appropriate for each sex. Human Life is Group Life  Relationships organised in different ways: o Friendship o Marriage o Parenthood o Shared links to a common ancestor o Workplace associations o Etc.  Note: Forms of relatedness are always embedded in, and shaped by, politics, economics, and worldviews ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Kinship:  Form of relatedness studied by anthropologists is kinship  Kinship systems focus on ideas about shared substance and its transmission  Cross-cultural comparison, however, shows that kinship is not a direct reflection of biology Relatedness  Socially recognized ties that connect people in a variety of different ways  Kinship Systems: o Social relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance Descent  Lineages, clans, and residence rules o Decent groups are permanent units  Members have access to lineage estates o Decent and post-marital residence rules  Ensure 50% of people in each generation live on ancestral estate Bilateral Descent  The principle that a descent group is formed by people who believe they are related to each other by connection made through their mothers and father equally.  **Cognatic Descent UNDERSTAND KINDSHIP CHART  will be on final ANTHROPOLOGY 100 – Lecture Notes Descent: Unilineal  There are two types of unilineal descent: 1. Paternal Descent: a social group formed by people connected by father-child links  i.e. a Patrilineage five generations deep 2. Matrilineal Descent: a social group formed by mother-child links  i.e. a Matrilineage five generations deep Marriage and Family  What are the issues that come up in
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