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Lecture 23

BIOL 336 Lecture 23: April 3rd 2017
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Department
Biology
Course
BIOL 336
Professor
Varela Diana
Semester
Winter

Description
April 3 , 2017 Biol 336- Lecture 23 o ASP ▪ Symptoms: vomiting, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, dizziness, disorientation, and short-term memory loss (48hrs) ▪ Toxins: domoic acid (affects central nervous system) ▪ Organisms responsible: Diatoms eg. Species of Pseudonitzschia • 5. Harmful consequences on marine life o Oxygen deletion/Hydrogen sulphide poisoning: Can produce massive fish kills (principally in more sheltered areas) o Shellfish starvation and habitat destruction: Caulerpa covers everything else, forms these meadows and they cover surfaces (such as corals) then they cannot photosynthesize. They smother o Physical damage on fish: diatoms that form chains, some have these spikes which rip open the gills and insides of fish o Release of toxins: can also cause massive fish kills. Can happen very quickly (overnight) ▪ Death of shellfish, birds, fish, mammals o Toxic food chain effects ▪ Food chain magnification • Biological mechanism of concentration • Animal at a given trophic level consumes large quantities of organisms at lower levels • An environmentally friendly solution? Fish farmers spread clay to ward off harmful algae that could devastate the crop in their pens. After South Koreans began clay treatments, fishery losses fell from $100 million to $1 million • 6. Freshwater harmful algal blooms o Animals an humans affected by toxins o Exposure to toxins ▪ Through skin contact, inhalation, water and food consumption ▪ Most common route is drinking water o Oxygen deprived conditions: common consequence of bloom decay o Affected animas: ducks, geese, gulls, songbirds fish cattle dogs, etc o Human symptoms: o Cyanobacterial toxins: ▪ In >40 spp ▪ Liposaccharides • Fever and inflammation in humans (bathing or showering) • Anabena, Synechococcus and microcystis ▪ Hepatotoxins • Animal poisoning form drinking water • Tumor-promoting activity • Some human deaths and illness • Anabena, nostoc, Oscillatoria, • Similar to okadeic acid ▪ Neutorotxins • Block neuromuscular activity • 7. Global increase in HABs o Coastal pollution: dissolved nutrients ▪ Examples: nitrogen and phosphorus ▪ Come from many sources: forest run off, agriculture runoff, atmospheric depositions, urban runoff ▪ Enhanced growth of marine autotrophs ▪ If oversupplies eutrophication ▪ Eutrophication • Set of physical, chemical, and biological changes that take place when excessive nutrients are released into the water • Two significant problems o Harmful algal blooms o Hypoxia or anoxia (Low O2 and high H2S)… “dead zones” o What can we do? ▪ Reduce nutrients inputs into rivers and estuaries ▪ Restrict ballast water introductions ▪ Control blooms using chemicals, flocculants or biological agents • Clay spread on bloom of Heterosigma in Korea stopped the bloom ▪ Monitoring and surveillance + rapid response, forecasting public education Topic 17: Technological applications of Algae (chapter 4) • 1. Algae as research tools o Previous discoveries using algae: ▪ Microtubule pattersn, characteristic of eukarytis cilia and flagella ▪ Absorption spectrum og photosynthesis ▪ The first products of carbon fixation (the calvin cycle) ▪ The existence of messenger RNA from studies is Acetabularia ▪ Some are sueful lab organisms… he grow rapidly, have short generation times, and are easily
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