CHEM 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 29: Carbon Group, Substituent, Propionaldehyde

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CHEM 101-Lecture 29-Hydrocarbons with Functional Groups
Alcohols and ethers: Contain an oxygen atom with two single bonds
Alcohols
Oxygen atom is single-bonded to one carbon atom and one hydrogen atom,
creating a hydroxyl group
The carbon chain is numbered from the end closest to the hydroxyl group
Name is the same as the parent hydrocarbon, with the suffix changed to -ol
Add a prefix describing the position of the hydroxyl group on the carbon
chain
Can be formed from the fermentation of sugars
Ex: 1-propanol
http://www.chemkits.eu/alcohols/227-1-propanol-n-propanol-71-23-8.html
Ethers
Oxygen is single-bonded to two carbon atoms
The carbon groups on each side of the oxygen are treated as separate chains
The molecule is named by describing the two carbon chains as substituent
groups, followed by “ether”
Ethers are not very reactive
Often used as solvents, as they are unlikely to react with other
substances
Ex: ethyl propyl ether
http://www.pherobase.com/database/compound/compounds-detail-ethyl%20propyl%20ether.php?isvalid=yes
Aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters: Contain a carbonyl (C=O) group
Aldehydes
The carbon atom of the carbonyl group is attached to at least one hydrogen atom
Carbonyl group will be at one end of the molecule
Carbon chain is numbered starting with the the carbon that is part of the carbonyl
group
Name is the same as the parent hydrocarbon, with the suffix changed to -al
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