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Lecture 13

GEOG 101B Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Indian Act, Doukhobor

2 pages70 viewsFall 2016

Department
Geography
Course Code
GEOG 101B
Professor
Dawson Teresa
Lecture
13

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Canadian History- Migration and Immigration
Researchers believe the first peoples came to Canada via a (glacial) land bridge 10,000-30,000
years ago. Some indigenous oral histories have elements that confirm such a journey. In some
cultures, however, creation stories tell of people being created here in situ (on back of turtle, for
example). People have been in what is now Canada for all of human memory.
First European Settlement: Norse settlement in L’Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, 11th
century.
Migration Flows/Waves to Canada since 1600
1. 17th & 18th centuries
Although Europeans had explored the land previously, a permanent European settlement
was not established until 1604 (Port Royal, Bay of Fundy).
2. 19th to mid 20th Century (European Focus)
Throughout 1800s, a steady stream of British and Irish came, ex. 1869-1930, 150000 British
Children were sent to Canada as part of the child emigration movement, where children of
people thought to be criminals (including the mentally ill) were sent over to Canada. They were
basically servants and child prostitutes at the time.
Late 1870s to early 1050s. Central Europeans immigrated to Western Canada (Polish, Ukrainian,
etc.)
While Quebec and Ontario were dominated by English and French, The prairies and BC got
central Europeans (including Doukhobors, a Russian pacifist group).
Meanwhile, state government policies like:
Indian Act, 1876. Forced internal migration of indigenous peoples onto reserves (not aligned
with traditional territories).
Residential Schools 1870s-1996.
Gold Rush (1858) brought Southern Chinese to BC (established Chinatown in Victoria).
Building of Canadian Pacific Railway spurred more Chinese migrant workers to come. Head tax
eventually $500, started at $5.
However, from 1923-1947, the Chinese Exclusion Act banned all Chinese permanent
immigration so they had no citizenship rights and could not bring their families. In the 50s act is
repealed, we see more families coming and reuniting.
3. The Immigration Act of 1967
(focus away from Europe, towards rest of the world)
21st century, we have selective immigration policies. We like people who have money
and welcome people who come for education. We have very strict definitions of refugees
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