Church was convinced that southern france had dangerous heretics (albigensions: questionable whether the albigensions ever existed as a group. Older legal practices persisted in scotland (allowed to keep their legal traditions: e. g. Less worry about evidence could find more or fish for the evidence you needed. English courts developed the tradition that the jury must be unanimous very difficult to get a witchcraft tradition. Countries under roman law convicted fewer witches, especially if they subscribed to the roman-canonical standard of proof: e. g. Italy convicted few witches, but wrote reams about them because they busily collected evidence: e. g. Spanish inquisition burned few witches (unlike their treatment of heretics) Secular courts had roman precedents for dealing with witchcraft trials. Ecclesiastical courts were usually softer on the accused people before them could not inflict bodily harm: handed people off to the secular courts for maiming or execution.