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Lecture 3

PSYC 231 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Jerky, Eye Contact, Paraplegia

Course Code
PSYC 231

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Chapter 2 The Self in a Social World Part 1: The Self
Monday, January 14th, 2019
The Self
a) Social Self: the social roles that you hold (teacher, student, child etc.)
b) Self-Concept: who am I? How do I come to know myself?
c) Self-Esteem: what is my worth?
d) Self-Knowledge: How can I explain myself and predict my actions
1. Self-Concept: Who am I?
How do I come to know myself?
How accurate is my self-knowledge?
How do I know who I am?
“I just know!→ Intuition
Automatic versus controlled processes
Automatic VS. Controlled Processing
Automatic Processing: Implicit or intuitive thinking that operates outside of our
conscious control impulsive, effortless, habitual
Example: A person was quickly flashed a judgemental person and was not
consciously attained but unconscious caught it. They showed a more negative mood
and negative self esteem. People exposed to the accepting person showed higher
rates of self esteem and mood.
**all of this happened within the unconscious process. Things get activated by
events and can respond unconsciously. You may not know why you feel a certain
way because the feeling is unconscious.
- Makes our social lives easier, we do not have to consciously process
everything that happens to us
The Downside our deliberative conclusions about our thoughts, feelings and
behaviours are often WRONG!
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Why we are not aware of the ways in which automatic processes shape or
everyday experiences and our thoughts about those experiences.
Controlled Processing: explicit thinking that operates within our conscious control
deliberate, reflective
Predicting Behaviours
- Mom will say 50% chance you will stay together, friends will be more
- The self will say you will stay in the relationship
**More accuracy though accessing implicit feelings about a relationship
Positive Illusions: Keep us linked to a loved one and keep us motivated to work to
maintain the relationship! (almost entirely non-conscious)
Predicting my Feelings
Lottery winners and controls were not significantly different in their ratings of how
happy they were now, how happy they were before winning (or, for controls, how
happy they were 6 months ago), and how happy they expected to be in a couple of
Table 1 indicates that accident victims recalled their past as having been
happier than did controls (which we may call a nostalgia effect), while
experiencing their present as less happy than controls.
It should be noted, however, that the paraplegic rating of present happiness is
still above the midpoint of the scale and that the accident victims did not
appear nearly as unhappy as might have been expected.
Immune Neglect
o We are unaware of the functioning of our “Psychological Immune System”,
which includes strategies for rationalizing, discounting, forgiving, and
limiting emotional trauma
Self-Serving Biases
Attributions: Explanations for WHY THINGS HAPPEN TO US
“I did well because I am smart!”
Internal, stable, and global attributions
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