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Lecture 13

Outline of Lecture 13

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Biological Sciences
Asish Mukhopadhyay

Outline of Lecture 13 Limb Development I. Embryologic origin of the limb - Limb bud appears at 4 weeks and is complete at 8 weeks; limbs rotate during development - Source of limb components (mostly what you’d expect) - Lateral plate mesoderm: bones, tendons, ligaments, dermis, vasculature - Surface ectoderm: epidermis - Neural crest: melanocytes - Neural tube: motor and sensory neurons - Somites of mesoderm: limb muscle - Structure of limb buds - Form from somatic lateral plate mesoderm - Edge of bud is apical ectodermal ridge (AER), critical for limb formation - Within limb bud is progress zone (high proliferation) and mesenchymal mesoderm (stop dividing, differentiate into proper proximal/distal fate) II. How the limb is patterned - Limb axes are unusual: anterior (thumb), dorsal (back of hand), distal (fingers) - FGF expression by the AER controls where the limb forms along the A/P axis of the body A) Proximal/Distal axis - The Hox-d genes are differentially expressed along the P/D axis
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