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Lecture 19

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Department
Biological Sciences
Course
55-213
Professor
Hubberstey
Semester
Winter

Description
Lecture 19 2013-01-10 2:29 PM Epigenetics)(continued):! • See!picture!!!identical!twins!do!not!share!diseases! o Very!interesting! o It!shows!that!they!did!a!very!large!study!where! they!looked!at!lifetime!incidences!of!disease! between!identical!(exact!same!DNA!sequence)!and! fraternal!(similar!DNA!sequence)!twins.!! o You!would!expect!that!2!identical!twins!would!have! the!same!incidence!of!different!diseases!in!their! lifetime.!However,!its!not!!! o What!changes!in!their!lifetime!is!their!epigenetics,! i.e.!their!chromatin!state!!! • See!video!that!puts!together!the!world!of!epigenetics! ! Impact)of)epigenetic)regulation)on)human)disease:) • Valproic!acid:!used!to!treat!bipolar!disorder,!seizures!and! cancer! o A!drug!used!to!treat!a!bunch!of!different!diseases! o Recently!found!to!be!a!histone!modulator!(acetylation)! o By!affecting!acetylation,!it!could!be!turning!on!some!genes!that!are!normally! off!by!altering!the!chromatin!state!between!heterochromatic!and! euchromatic! • Loss!of!imprinting!(LO1)!of!ARH1!and!PEG1!genes!can!cause!breast!cancer! o Shutting!off!of!maternal!or!paternal!allele!of!a!gene!whereas!the!other!one! stays!active! o If!you!have!2!copies!of!alleles,!you!change!the!copy!number!(recall!CNVs! discussed!earlier!in!the!course).!By!losing!one!copy,!you!let!the!other!copy! crank!up!the!production!of!those!genes!and!that!gives!the!cell!different! signals!that!it!isn’t!normally!used!to! • LO1!of!IGF2!has!been!shown!in!breast,!lung,!ovarian!and!brain!cancers! o Off!from!paternal,!on!from!maternal! o Related!to!cancer! • Effect!of!early!traumatic!stress!on!suicide!rates!and!depression! o They!looked!at!epigenetic!patterns!of!people!who!committed!suicide! o They!look!at!chromatin!status!of!different!genes!and!overall!acetylation!and! methylation!patterns! o They!found!there!was!a!correlation!between!those!that!committed!suicide!vs! those!that!died!in!accidents,!for!example! o Those!who!committed!suicide!were!also!affected!by!some!early!traumatic! stress!in!their!lifetime! o Controversy!–!numbers!are!small!so!some!people!say!it’s!a!correlation!but!its! not!necessarily!factual! o Its!saying!that!early!childhood!trauma!can!actually!change!your!genomic! epigenetic!structure! o Epigenetics!and!depression:!current!challenges!and!new!therapeutic!options,! 2010!K!“Epigenetics!of!considerable!interest!for!the!understanding!of!early! life!stress!in!depression.!The!current!research!regarding!epigenetic! pharmaceuticals!is!promising!and!deserves!further!attention!in!depression! and!psychiatry!in!general,!and!may!strike!out!new!ways!towards!individually! tailored!therapies”! • Understanding!the!“epigenome”!is!the!next!frontier!of!molecular!biology! • People!now!pushing!for!a!“Human!Epigenome!Project”!!similar!to!the!Human! Genome!Project! Video)–)Ghost)in)your)Genes! • Environmental!effect!was!imprinting!on!sperm!and!eggs! • They!did!a!study!on!the!women!who!were!in!the!building!in!9/11!and!they!found! that!there!was!an!environmental!effect!imprinting!on!their!eggs!and!that!these!were! carried!on!in!the!cortisol!level!of!their!kids! • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nygyUMODV7Y&feature=related!! • http://www.youtub
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