55-140 Lecture Notes - Hyperglycemia, Gluconeogenesis, Ketogenesis

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HORMONAL REGULATOIN OF BLOOD GLUCOSE
Normal Levels: 5mM (80 mg/dL)
fatty acids cannot cross blood-brain barrier (brain can only use ketones and glucose)
RBC’s are totally dependent upon glucose for energy (no mitochondria)
hypoglycemia: leads to fatigue, death
hyperglycemia: dehydradion, tissue damage, protein glycosylation
4 sytems involved in glucose regulation:
pancreas/intestive
liver
fat
muscle
Blood glucose levels are kept relatively constant (highly regulated) throughout day
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1) FED STATE (up to 2 hours after a meal)
1. insulin released by pancrease
2. glucose to liver
3. some stored as glycogen, rest sent into bloodstream
4. glucose in fat cells is stored as TG’s
2) 4 hours after eating
1. GLUCAGON now released from pancreas
2. liver begins to breakdown glycogen
3. fat cells do not take up glucose, nor do they release it yet
3) FASTING (24 hours after eating)
1. more glucagon released
fatty acid release (can be used in B-oxidation in muscle)
FA ketone bodies (for use in brain and muscle)
2. GLUCOCORTICOID release also
ketogenesis
neoglucogenesis (muscle protein glucose for brain)
4) FASTING (3+ days)
HGH: upregulation of ketogenesis (FA KB brain); spares muscle tiss.
fatty acids for muscle (all KB’s sent to brain)
muscle breakdown for brain glucose
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