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beta cells

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Earth and Environmental Sciences
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Insulin and Genetic Engineering  Diabetes mellitus is the inability of beta cells of pancreas to produce insulin  Restriction enzymes/endonuclease cut DNA at specific recognition sites o This produces either "sticky ends" or "blunt ends" o DNA ligase can be used to re-join the ends  Recombinant DNA technology combines the DNA from two different organisms  Reverse transcriptase catalyses the formation of DNA from mRNA  Vector is a gene carrier. It will carry a human gene into the cell of a bacterium or yeast that will be used to make human protein. Produces no benefit for viruses / carrier  Plasmid, circular strand of DNA, are useful vectors to make human protein from bacteria  Transgenic organisms contain another species DNA Integration Link [EXAM] Remove a particular gene from the DNA of an animal cell  Locate with the use of a gene probe  Use restriction enzymes  Use endonucleases to cut at specific base sequence by hydrolysing  Breaking sugar-phosphate bonds [EXAM] Insert this gene into the genetic material of a bacterium  Same restriction enzymes  Cut at same base sequence in bacterial DNA  Leaving sticky ends/hydrogen bonds break  Join/splice with ligase  Use of plasmid Task to find and insert the gene into bacterium for Insulin production  Isolate human gene, e.g. insulin, by using cytoplasmic mRNA (no introns)  Reverse transcriptase, taken fr
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