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risk assessment

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Earth and Environmental Sciences

Chapter13: The Science of Risk Assessment:  The basic model, partitions risk assessment into four steps: hazard identification, dose-response modeling, exposure assessment and risk characterization.  Integration of a risk assessment with a cost analysis and other matters to develop strategies for risk regulations and control often called risk management  Hazard identification uses the input of biologist, chemist and others to determine whether available data indicate that some compound or exposure should be considered possible hazards.  Dose-response modeling requires the input of statisticians, epidemiologist and people expert in developing models that predict adverse response as a function of dose.  Toxicologists are important for understanding mechanism of toxicity and the relevance of animal data for human exposures.  Exposure measurements often require the input of engineers as well as hydrologist (for waterborne hazards), meteorologists (for airborne hazards). And analytical chemists.  The risks associated with exposures to a hazard may be expressed by a variety of summary satisticans that include individual life time risk, annual population risk, the percentage or proportion of increase in risk and loss of life expectancy.  Six essential issues arise in risk assessment. First, not every person exposed to a potential hazard will exhibit an adverse response. In addition, almost every adverse response to so
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