95-211 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: 16Pf Questionnaire, Models 1, Conscientiousness
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Chapter 2: Personality in Sport and Exercise September 15, 2015
What is Personality?
Personality – the overall organization of psychological characteristics – thinking, feeling and
behaving – that differentiates us from others and leads us to act consistently across time and
Disposition – broad, pervasive, encompassing ways of relating to particular types of people or
Applied to behaviours, thoughts and emotions that are relatively stable, such as competitiveness,
optimism and motivational orientation
Trait – a relatively stable characteristic or quality that may represent a portion of one’s
personality; a quality used to explain an individual’s behaviour across time and situations
Ex. Perfectionism – cluster of expressions – organized, compulsive, socially precise, controlled,
self-disciplined and self-critical
Psychological states – momentary feelings and thoughts that change depending on the situation
Athletic personality – situation that causes reaction or an already established trait
Traits normal distribution throughout population – moderate levels of a specific trait, small
percentage having low or high
1. Cattell’s trait personality model (1946, 1995) – 16 personality factors known as source
traits that capture personality Ex. Warmth, reasoning, dominance, liveliness, social
boldness … etc.
2. Digman’s five factor model (1990) - OCEAN
-Openness to experience – trait including level of curiosity, the opposite of being close-
-Conscientiousness – trait comprising striving for achievement and self-discipline
-Extraversion – Trait involving level of assertiveness and energetic approach to the world
-Agreeableness – Trait involving general compliance and positive approach toward others
-Neuroticism – Trait comprising feels of tension and nervousness
How Does Personality Develop?
Humanistic psychology – psychological approach that focuses on personal responsibility,
human growth, personal striving and individual dignity
Each person’s experiences, beliefs, values and perceptions emphasized in present moment
Self-actualization – an individual’s attempt to be the best he or she can be or a desire to fulfill
Understand needs and desires of athletes, respect their perceptions and ideas and view their
athletic participation in the bigger picture of personal growth
Figure 2.1 - Maslow’s hierarchy of needs pyramid
Physiological needs – food, water, sleep and shelter
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