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Lecture 2

Philosophy 34-129 Lecture 2: Lecture Notes on Kantianism, Utilitarianism, Intuitionism, Communitarianism

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Mark Letteri

Hobbes • Scientific/mechanistic view o Attraction/repulsion • Value/worth: measured humanly o Good: whatever we desire o Bad: whatever we avoid o Vile: whatever we find contemptible • Felicity: prospering • “By nature, people are more or less equal” says Hobbes. o Every individual presents in principle a physical danger o Every individual presents in principle a strategic danger • Mother nature = people are fundamentally selfish (wanting to get what they want) • Natural equality prompts hope for gain: fighting/”quarrel” o Competition (people fight for what they want) o Diffidence (lack of self-confidence; people are insecure) o Glory • “We don’t live in a civil state, we live in a state of war” because people are naturally selfish • “The state of nature is the state of war.” = Nothing is right or wrong. • Self-preservation = right of nature = everyone’s fundamental interest • A “civil state” with a common power to impose order versus a “state of war” • War involves “incommodities” • Nothing is wrong in a state of war because no law exists to separate “mine” and “thine” • In a state of war, we have a natural right to preserve and enhance our interests and we see fit • Human beings are both self-interested and rational • Long-term (rational) self-interest calls for the constraint of individual liberty by a common power that imposes order, security, and peace • A peaceful civil state enables individuals to pursue their interests more effectively • Fear and liberty are consistent • Selfish alone in people = permanent state of war • Don’t go against the common power, because the common power keeps you at liberty on certain things (the common power might be the government) Kant • Known as a deontologist  emphasized on rules and duties • The good will  you intend the right thing simply because
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