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Lecture 10

46-115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder, Primitive Reflexes, Prenatal Development

2 pages98 viewsSpring 2014

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Learning Objectives
10.1 Identify ways to think critically about developmental findings
10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development
Gene-Environment Interaction: the impact of genes depends on the environment in
which the behaviour develops (low MAO=increased risk of violent behaviour)
Nature via Nurture: genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular
Gene Expression: some genes turn on only in response to specific environmental events
10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identity barriers to normal development
Prenatal Development (From zygote to baby)
Zygote: fertilized egg
Blastocyst: ball of identical cells, each with no specific function
Embryo: second week through eighth week after conception, when limbs, facial
features and major organs take shapes
Fetus: ninth week of development through birth during which physical maturation
Human brain begins to develop 18 days after fertilizations Brain development
continues into early adulthood
Obstacles to Normal Fetal Development
Teratogen: environmental factor that can harm development (Drugs alcohol, viruses,
x-rays, depression and anxiety, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (125-740/year)-
learning, physical, facial, behavioral
Genetic Disruptions of Fetal Development (down syndrome)
Premature and Low-Birth-Weight Babies (<36 weeks gestation [24-25
weeks=viability]), 5lbs and 8oz
An occasional drink can cause major birth defects (no safe amount of alcohol)
10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones
Survival Instincts: infants are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors that
are triggered by specific types of stimulation and fulfill important survival needs (sucking
reflex, rooting reflex)
Coordinating Movement: motor behaviors are bodily motions that occur as result of
self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles (sitting up, crawling, standing,
cruising, walking and running)
Factors Influencing Motor Development: physical maturation plays a key role in allowing
children to become steady and flexible. Motor patterns are innately programmed and
become activated at specific time points. Cultural and parting practices play crucial roles
in motor development
10.5 Understand major theories of the mechanisms by which children learn
Constructive Theory: children actively construct an understanding of their world based
on observations of the effects of their behaviours
Assimilation: absorbing new information into current knowledge
Accommodation: altering a belief to make it a compatible experience
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