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Lecture 10

Psychology 46-115 Lecture 10: Chapter 10 Learning Objectives

2 Pages
85 Views
Spring 2014

Department
Psychology
Course Code
46-115
Professor
jackson
Lecture
10

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CHAPTER 10
Learning Objectives
10.1 Identify ways to think critically about developmental findings
10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development
Gene-Environment Interaction: the impact of genes depends on the environment in
which the behaviour develops (low MAO=increased risk of violent behaviour)
Nature via Nurture: genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular
environments
Gene Expression: some genes turn on only in response to specific environmental events
10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identity barriers to normal development
Prenatal Development (From zygote to baby)
Zygote: fertilized egg
Blastocyst: ball of identical cells, each with no specific function
Embryo: second week through eighth week after conception, when limbs, facial
features and major organs take shapes
Fetus: ninth week of development through birth during which physical maturation
occurs
Human brain begins to develop 18 days after fertilizations Brain development
continues into early adulthood
Obstacles to Normal Fetal Development
Teratogen: environmental factor that can harm development (Drugs alcohol, viruses,
x-rays, depression and anxiety, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (125-740/year)-
learning, physical, facial, behavioral
Genetic Disruptions of Fetal Development (down syndrome)
Premature and Low-Birth-Weight Babies (<36 weeks gestation [24-25
weeks=viability]), 5lbs and 8oz
An occasional drink can cause major birth defects (no safe amount of alcohol)
10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones
Survival Instincts: infants are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors that
are triggered by specific types of stimulation and fulfill important survival needs (sucking
reflex, rooting reflex)
Coordinating Movement: motor behaviors are bodily motions that occur as result of
self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles (sitting up, crawling, standing,
cruising, walking and running)
Factors Influencing Motor Development: physical maturation plays a key role in allowing
children to become steady and flexible. Motor patterns are innately programmed and
become activated at specific time points. Cultural and parting practices play crucial roles
in motor development
10.5 Understand major theories of the mechanisms by which children learn
Constructive Theory: children actively construct an understanding of their world based
on observations of the effects of their behaviours
Assimilation: absorbing new information into current knowledge
Accommodation: altering a belief to make it a compatible experience
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Description
CHAPTER 10 Learning Objectives 10.1 Identify ways to think critically about developmental findings 10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development Gene-Environment Interaction: the impact of genes depends on the environment in which the behaviour develops (low MAO=increased risk of violent behaviour) Nature via Nurture: genetic predispositions can drive us to select and create particular environments Gene Expression: some genes turn on only in response to specific environmental events 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identity barriers to normal development Prenatal Development (From zygote to baby) Zygote: fertilized egg Blastocyst: ball of identical cells, each with no specific function Embryo: second week through eighth week after conception, when limbs, facial features and major organs take shapes Fetus: ninth week of development through birth during which physical maturation occurs Human brain begins to develop 18 days after fertilizations Brain development continues into early adulthood Obstacles to Normal Fetal Development Teratogen: environmental factor that can harm development (Drugs alcohol, viruses, x-rays, depression and anxiety, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (125-740/year)- learning, physical, facial, behavioral Genetic Disruptions of Fetal Development (down syndrome) Premature and Low-Birth-Weight Babies (<36 weeks gestation [24-25 weeks=viability]), 5lbs and 8oz An occasional drink can cause major birth defects (no safe amount of alcohol) 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones Survival Instincts: infants are born with a large set of automatic motor behaviors that are triggered by specific types of stimulation and fulfill important survival needs (sucking reflex, rooting reflex) Coordinating Movement: motor behaviors are bodily motions that occur as result of self-initiated force that moves the bones and muscles (sitting up, crawling, standing, cruising, walking and running) Factors Influencing Motor Development: physical maturation plays a key role in allowing children to become steady and flexible. Motor patterns are innately programmed and become activated at specific time points. Cultural and parting practices play crucial roles in motor development 10.5 Understand major theories of the mechanisms by which children learn Constructive Theory: children actively construct an understanding of their world based on observations of the effects of their behaviours Assimilation: absorbing new information into current knowledge Accommodation: altering a belief to make it a compatible experience 10.6 Explain the processes by which children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains Piagets Tests Object Permanence: knowing an object exists even when you cannot see it (solidly in place by 12 months-sensorimotor) Egocentrism: inability to see the world from others perspective (ex. three mountain tasks- preoperational) Conservation: despite transformation, the amount remains the same (liquid, pennies etc.- preoperational) Stages Sensorimotor Stage (birth-2 years): children only know what they can see-cant think about things they cant see o Lack object permanence (but start developing it around 2 months) o Toy behind screen (it should be there-2months, but search for only around 8 months, 12 months they know) o Lack Deferred Limitation-an inability to perform an action that the child observed previously (they dont really pretend) Preoperational Stage (2-7 years): able to construct metal representations of experiences, but unable to perform mental transformations or operations (egocentric) Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years): can perform mental operations for actual events (Draw map from school to home) o Can perform conservation tasks (can go forwards and backwards) o Still poor at performing mental operations in abstract situations (need ph
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