Class Notes (999,057)
CA (575,815)
U Windsor (2,747)
46 (610)
46-115 (100)
Lecture 4

46-115 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Opportunity Cost, Apophenia, Terror Management Theory

5 Pages
42 Views
Fall 2017

Department
Psychology
Course Code
46-115
Professor
Scott Mattson
Lecture
4

This preview shows pages 1-2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.
Week Three (Sept. 25 - 29, 2017)
Introduction to Psychology
Lecture 04: Science versus Pseudoscience
Naive Realism
- The belief that we see the world precisely as it is → seeing is believing.
- Works well in ordinary life, but consider:
- The earth seems flat.
- We seem to be standing still, yet the earth is moving around the sun 18.5
miles/second.
Common Sense
- Sometimes our common sense is right.
- Guides us to the truth and future research ideas.
Psychology as a Science
- Science is an approach the evidence, a toolbox of skills used to prevent us from fooling
ourselves.
- Communalism: willingness to share our findings with others.
- Disinterestedness: attempt to be objective when evaluating evidence.
Science as a Safeguard against “Bias”
- Confirmation Bias: Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and
neglect or distort contradicting evidence.
- Belief Perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence
contradicts them.
Scientific Thinking and Everyday Life
- Stive to think scientifically; think in ways that minimize error.
- Become aware of your “biases” or perspectives.
- Be open about them from the start.
- Recognize you might be wrong.
- Practice humility.
- “Use the tools of the scientific method to try to overcome them”; or at least
become aware of them.
What is Scientific Theory?
- Explanation for a larger number of findings in the natural world.
- Not just an educated guess; some survive repeated efforts to refute them.
-Hypothesis: testable prediction; your research question derived from a theory.
Popular Psychology
- Self-Help
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Week Three (Sept. 25 - 29, 2017)
- About 3,500 self-help books are published each year. 5% tested.
- The quality of the information can be good, misleading, or even dangerous.
- The internet offers easy and quick information but quality is questionable.
- Quick Fixes and Miracle Cues
- Quick fixes and miracle cures - there are hundreds for increasing intelligence,
memory, depression, and even for enhancing our sex lives(—perhaps by the
books that we choose to read in public?).
- An important part of this course includes discussion of how to discern the quality
of information.
Psychological Pseudoscience
- Pseudoscience: set of claims that seems scientific but isn’t - lacks safeguards against
confirmation bias and belief perseverance.
- Ie. Astrology, out-of-body experiences, polygraph testing, recovered memories,
multiple personality disorder, and some forms of psychotherapy.
- Sometimes difficult to discern from bad science.
- Metaphysical Claim: are unjustifiable (ie. God, the soul, or the afterlife: not necessarily
wrong, but testable).
Prevalence of Pseudoscientific Beliefs Among Americans in 2015
- Extrasensory Perception: 41%
- Haunted Houses: 37%
- Ghosts: 32%
- Telepathy (mind-reading): 37%
- Astrology: 25%
- Visits to the earth by aliens: 24%
- Communication with the dead: 21%
- Witches: 21%
Seven Deadly Sins of Pseudoscience
1. Ad Hoc Immunizing Hypothesis: escape hatch that defenders of a theory use to protect
against falsification, usually a loophole or expectation for negative findings.
2. Lack of Self-Corrections
3. Exaggerated Claims
4. Overreliance on Anecdotes: Can’t tell us about the cause and effect. Anecdotes are
often not representative. Difficulty to verify.
5. Evasion of Peer Review: Doesn’t allow work to be screened by colleagues.
6. Absence of Connectivity: findings don’t build upon prior scientific findings.
7. Psychobabble: oodles of psychological or neurological language that sounds highly
scientific.
Why are we drawn to Pseudoscience
→ We are all prone to pseudoscientific beliefs
- Rational vs. Experiential Thinking.
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
Week Three (Sept. 25 29, 2017) Introduction to Psychology Lecture 04: Science versus Pseudoscience Naive Realism The belief that we see the world precisely as it is seeing is believing. Works well in ordinary life, but consider: The earth seems flat. We seem to be standing still, yet the earth is moving around the sun 18.5 milessecond. Common Sense Sometimes our common sense is right. Guides us to the truth and future research ideas. Psychology as a Science Science is an approach the evidence, a toolbox of skills used to prevent us from fooling ourselves. Communalism: willingness to share our findings with others. Disinterestedness: attempt to be objective when evaluating evidence. Science as a Safeguard against Bias Confirmation Bias: Tendency to seek out evidence that supports our hypothesis and neglect or distort contradicting evidence. Belief Perseverance: tendency to stick to our initial beliefs even when evidence contradicts them. Scientific Thinking and Everyday Life Stive to think scientifically; think in ways that minimize error. Become aware of your biases or perspectives. Be open about them from the start. Recognize you might be wrong. Practice humility. Use the tools of the scientific method to try to overcome them; or at least become aware of them. What is Scientific Theory? Explanation for a larger number of findings in the natural world. Not just an educated guess; some survive repeated efforts to refute them. Hypothesis: testable prediction; your research question derived from a theory. Popular Psychology SelfHelp
More Less
Unlock Document

Only pages 1-2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit