Class Notes (811,169)
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University of Windsor

Language, Thinking, Reasoning COGNITION Definition “process of organizing information to solve a problem” * thinking, decision making * reasoning, judging, imagining All depend on learning & memory SCURVEY • Vadco de Gama (1487), 100 of the 160 men died • Scyrvey killed more sialors than accidents, warfare and other diseases combined HISTORY OF COGNITION * Modern cognitive sciences has advanced greatly in the last 3 to 4 decades * 19th century witnessed Structuralism (Wundt) and asks about the “structure of thought” * goal: understand contents of the mind * how: observers reported mental activities * prob: reports differed, results always fit * result: No more study of cognition because no tools * Watson rejected the study of mental events o said psychology cant be a science, because we can’t see it o thoughts existed, but could not be studied because they were not objective * modern cognitive study emerges after WW2 • computer introduced new terminology o became the model of the brain • new mentalism meant applying objective methods (Watson) to mental events not S-R, but S-O-R • stimulus-response bonds, but stimulus-organism-response o this requires cognition THE DOMAIN OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY • many aspects of psychology overlap in here FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS: CONNECT 9 PROBLEMS WITH 4 LINES • have to connect 9 dots with 4 straight lines, and cannot lift your pen • many people cant do this, even through it can be done with 3 • we assumed we are stuck and can't do it THE UNUSUALUSE TEST • test of creativity and intelligence • unusual uses you can think of for a penny o curtain straightener o tire check o balance a table o missing game piece • microwave oven o disinfect sponges LANGUAGE Definition “formal system of communication involving symbols (spoken, written, gestured)” • Characteristics and structure of language o Why we and only we as a species have language • Steps in language development • Language acquisition • Language and Thinking THREE CHARACTERSITICS OF LANGUAGE • We have all 3 of these, therefore we have language • Some species have some and some none Semanticity • to convey thoughts in a meaningful way • what used to be meaning less, now has meaning • symbols mean something (ttyl, brb, ily) Generativity • to combine symbols in novel ways • the symbols can't just mean one thing • dogs and bees lack this (the pacing around the dish only refers to the current meal) • 24/7 and it means something • code umbers to letters • create words (someone firended me on fb—not real word, but has meaning to us • bran-jolina, j-lo – we know who they are Displacement • to refer to past/non-present objects/events • talk about what someone looks like that isn’t here • dogs lack this. They are talking about their present food, not yesterdays or tomoorows • bees do have this Metanalysis • The tendency for letters to drift o Napron – “an apron” • We have 2 demonstrative pronouns (this and that) but used to have “yon”, a father distance that that (remember our colloquial term ‘yonder’). Spanish/ Greek/Italian still have all 3 • Word fossils (leftovers) exist in our sayings o Neck (parcel of land) of the woods • COUNTAND TELL have been swapped over time o Today we tell a story, and count money but…. TRANSFORMATION OFTHE WORD: TOILET • 1540, a cloth (from towella) • clothing on dressing table and items on dressing tables(hence the tern toiletries) • dressing when someone present • a private room • then a washroom STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE: PHONOLOGY Phoneme * basic sounds; the smallest unit in language * The sounds needed to say a word ‘g’ and ‘o’ in ‘go’ • words are combinations of phonemes COGERITE vs. KLPUTNG * difficult learning other language’s phonemes * may be a crit
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