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Lecture 1

Psychology 46-228 Lecture 1: Notes on Assessment and Diagnosis

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University of Windsor

Lecture 1 on Assessment and diagnosis Classification  We put groups of things together based upon shared characteristics, which tell use something useful  Groups share characteristics/having something in common (reliability)  Which conveys useful information (validity)  Etiology o Scientific study of origins o Causes or source of a disorder Agreement and Disagreement  John Stuart Mills o Causation by agreement (shared characteristic) o Causation by disagreement (distinguishing characteristic) Agreement (Example)  Lack of memory Damage to prefrontal cortex and hippocampus Damage to hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus Damage to prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala Damage to hippocampus and amygdala  Therefore, damage to hippocampus = amnesia? Disagreement (Example)  Group 1 has a characteristic (features a, b, c, d, e, x)  Group 2 does not (features a, b, c, d, e)  X differentiates the groups, and therefore is a likely cause of the characteristic of interest Agreement and Disagreement  Confirmation bias  tend to focus on evidence which confirms views  Instead, look for contradictory evidence (very helpful on tests - "why is this answer not correct") Classification  Through appearance is similar, the degree to which characteristics represent shared causes remains unknown  Must test validity of diagnostic categories, and refine History of Classification  Depressive Neurosis (DSM-II Example): o This disorder is manifested by an excessive reaction of depression due to an internal conflict or to an identifiable event such as the loss of a love object or cherished possession  DSM-III (1980, Robert Spitzer)  Reliability (Cliffs' Notes version): o You see it once, you
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