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Lecture 4

Psychology 46-228 Lecture 4: Notes on Phobias and PTSD

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Lecture 4 on Anxiety: Phobias, PTSD Past guides  Cross-fostering (P. 38) o Take babies and have them raised by other mothers. Took pups of genetically nervous mothers, placed with calm mothers to raise. Pups with calm mothers grew up to be calmer than pups remaining with stressed mothers  Ego Psychology (P. 21)  Abnormal behaviour due to ego deficiencies in regulating adaptational abilities, reality testing, and ego defences  For example, overwhelmed by internal conflict Q2. Operational definitions  Feeling of tension/apprehension  Set of behaviours (fidgeting, furrowed brow)  Physiological response Q5.  What occurs behaviourally and biologically at each stage of the stress response?  Sympathetic nervous response (HPA and SAM)?  Physiological changes?  Adaptive function of each stage?  Emotional experiences at each stage? Freeze, Flight, Fight, Fear Biology of Stress: Sympathetic activation  Under stress: o Autonomic nervous system shifts to favour sympathetic over parasympathetic o Energy shifts from digestion to fuelling the muscles  Limbic System o Area of the brain most associated with anxiety o Mediator between brain stem and cortex o Brain stem monitors changes in the body o This information is relayed to the cortex through the limbic system o Amygdala is essential to the experience of emotions Initial Response  Sensory organ  Limbic system  Amygdala "alarm"  Locus coeruleus and associated brain stem nuclei are sensitive to "Rapid Arousal Cues" o Also integral in the sleep/wake cycles  Initiates stress response  hypothalamus Sympathetic Response to Stress  When stimulated, hypothalamic nuclei produce generalized arousal:  Increases arousal in the sympathetic nervous system o Increased heart rate and blood pressure o Constriction of peripheral blood vessels o Respiration rates increase o Bronchial tubes dilate o Pupils dilate o Digestive processes decrease  Sympathetic activation prepares the body for intense motor activity Stress Circuits  Sympathetic adrenomedullary Response (SAM)  "quick" response  Adrenocortical Response (HPA)  "slow" response Adrenomedullary Response (SAM)  Activation of the sympathetic  adrenal medulla complex: o Perception of environmental novelty causes the hypothalamus (via nervous connection) to activate sympathetic fibres o Sympathetic fibres activate the adrenal medulla, which secrets the catecholamine: epinephrine Effects of SAM activation  Increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate and blood glucose levels  Shut down in digestive system  Rapid, short lived response to stress  = prepared to expend energy to adapt to the environment Adrenocortical Response (HPA)  Activation of the hypothalamus  pituitary  adrenal cortex complex: o As the response proces
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