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Lecture 11

Psychology 46-228 Lecture 11: Notes on Sleep Disorders

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Lecture 11 on Sleep and Sleep Disorders Sleep Disorders  Circadian rhythm and disruptions o Approximate 24 hour cycle o Sleep in response to light/dark cues o Involves nuclei in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and brain stem o Melatonin production o Jet lag  easier to shift forwards than to shift backwards Why Sleep?  Restorative theory o Sleep to restore homeostasis o Stage 4 sleep does appear to serve some restorative function o Possible immune functioning  Circadian theory o Sleep for protection/safety o Can accomplish survival tasks during the day o Sleep conserves energy and to prevents dangers at night o Vulnerability while asleep/animals that need to eat a lot sleep litter (horses, cows) o Animals that are not vulnerable while asleep/need little food to eat sleep much more (cats) o Animals that hibernate do not sleep; seem to need to catch up on sleep after hibernation  Memory effects o Memory consolidation o Decreased working memory o Research shows complex effects of different sleep stages on memory acquisition and consolidation Sleep Loss  Loss of 3-4 hours for one night  Sleepiness, fall asleep more quickly  Disturbances in self-reported mood  Decreased vigilance (ex. telling difference between tones)  2-3 days of deprivation o Microsleeps (2-3 seconds long)  remain sitting/standing o Longer deprivation  research is inconsistent  Less time to exhaustion  Creativity appears to be disrupted  Some people affected quite a bit others very little (other than "sleepy")  **We lose the neurons that allow us to detect phonetic Sleep Disorders  REM deprivation (interruption) o Greater tendency to have REM episodes after interruption o REM rebound  when allowed to sleep, have more than usual amount for 2-3 nights o Substitute REM with short wakeful period, no delayed effects o REM as "default state"
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