Class Notes (811,050)
Canada (494,463)
Psychology (550)
46-228 (47)
Scoboria (12)
Lecture 13

Psychology 46-228 Lecture 13: Notes on Schizophrenia

6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Windsor

Lecture 13 on Schizophrenia What is real?  Research on perceptual, cognitive illusions  Siblings disagree about to whom events happened, what exactly occurred o Different sides of the story; which one is true? Kant (1724-1804)  Since everything that we perceived is finally filtered to us through the senses and limitations of our thought, it is fundamentally and inevitably impossible for us to know the reality of "things in themselves"  If the sensory/propositional system is working properly, one's perceptions will necessarily conform to the world of consensual reality Schizophrenia: History  Eugen Bleuler (Swiss psychiatrist) o The central problem was a loosening or disharmony among various mental processes o A split ("schizen") in the mind's ("phren") normally integrated processes of affect and intellect, creating a condition he called schizophrenia  Bleuler, 4 primary symptoms responsible for the split of mental functions: o Loosening of associations  Thoughts and ideas are not coherently linked o Ambivalence  Wanting two contradictory things at once and being unable to choose between them o Autism Total self-centeredness, reality is replaced by fantasy  o Affective disturbance  Emotional responses are inconsistent with actions o Force the patient to adapt to chaotic mental life o The adaptations lead to other symptoms of schizophrenia:  Delusions (tries to make sense of the non-sense)  Hallucinations (misinterpretation of normative functions)  Mutism  Rigid postures Schizophrenia & DSM-IV  How is schizophrenia different diagnostically? o No specific symptom is necessary or sufficient o Several psychotic symptoms must be present o The symptoms must have been active for a minimum of one month o Other signs of disturbance must have lasted for at least 6 months Diagnostic criteria  Characteristic symptoms o Delusions o Hallucinations o Disorganized speech o Grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviour o Negative symptoms Positive Symptoms  Excessive behaviour o Hallucinations o Delusions o Bizarre behaviour o Confused thinking o Disorganized speech Delusions  Delusions of persecution o Most common delusion o Beliefs that one is being tormented or harassed o Result in hyper-vigilance o Ambiguous events interpreted as threatening (people with schizo pick up events in the environment around them)  Delusions of reference o Misinterpretation of sounds or other stimuli as having special reference only to the person o May be triggered by highway billboards, song lyrics, and movies  Delusions of control o Belief that an enemy or foreign entity is controlling one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviour  Delusions of grandeur o Belief that one is famous or important  Somatic delusions o Belief that something is wrong with one's body Hallucinations  70% hallucinate at some point  Unusual sensory experiences are not considered hallucinations unless the person: o Acts as if they were real o Is unable to stop them o Reports that they persist no matter what they do  Difficulty discriminating between real events and sub-vocalizations, thoughts, daydreams, or mental images  Misattribute these sensations to external sources  Hallucinations give the "illusion of reality"  Misconception: people with schizo act it out in a violent way  Auditory (60%) o Usually hearing voices o Sound as coming from inside or outside head o Belittle or accuse of wrongdoing o Command hallucinations  Tactile (40%) o Something touching, moving underneath skin o Most common: sensation of electrical shocks o Formication: sensation of creatures creeping under the skin  Visual (about 33%) o Usually involve visions of people or faces  Gustatory (taste) and olfactory (smell) o Less common schizophrenic experiences o Almost always unpleasant  Somatic o Bizarre sensations within the body o Least common Disordered Thought Processes  Formal thought disorder o Found in up to 85% of hospitalized schizophrenics  Derailment, cognitive slippage, or loosening of associations o The speaker cannot maintain a specific train of though o At extreme levels, speech becomes "word salad"  Neologism o The creation of words that are idiosyncratic to the speaker  Perseveration o Fixation on a word or concept and repeated utterances  Clang associations o Words are spoken only because they sound alike Disorders of Behaviour  Catatonia o Varies, virtual imm
More Less

Related notes for 46-228

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.