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Lecture 4

Psychology 46-322 Lecture 4: Lectures 4,5 on Assessment, Treatment, and Diagnosis

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Lecture 4,5 on Assessment, Treatment, and Diagnosis Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment  Problems with labels o Might upset the child (ex. abnormal) o Expectations that may be based on a label o Labels might cause others to ignore all the other context that this child may be evoke or determine Purposes of assessment  Assessment is only successful if it moves from assessment phase, to diagnostic phase, to intervention phase  Assessment phase  to understand the child's behaviours from multiple sources; getting the information in different environments o Naturalistic approach  gives us insights on how the child behaves and how the others respond to the child o Observation is important to understanding child's behaviour o ABA Format  what happens after a behaviour and the consequences of certain behaviours (what triggers behaviour and how parents/teachers shape the behaviour to respond to the child's) Interviews  Play format can be used if the child is younger than adolescence (how they interact); a sit- down for older kids  Structured questions (for specific answers)  Referral question  why are they there? Who noticed/raised the concern first?  Developmental and medical history  What happened prior to assessment? Problems with child birth? Parents' early relationship with the child, milestones of the child, any medical issues?  Family structure with the child; how they get along with same-age peers, siblings  School history  how was school and now? Grades in school?  What the parents want from the assessment, recommendations; what are they looking for in treatments? Are they looking for medications or willing to undergo treatments? Assessment (Cont'd)  How active is the child compared to same-age peers?  Problem: they don’t always agree  Children behave differently with different adults  General checklist  a broad sense of disorders  Specific (ex. referral question) Testing  Intelligence  if there is cognitive problems  Developmental scales  for young children and more severe children  Academic achievement testing  are they learning to read as expected? Do they know what they read or what's read to them? Math skills and issues in writing  Neuropsychological  connecting neuropsychological risks to cognitive skills (memory, encoding, short-term and long-term, visual and verbal, sensory motor skills, divide and sustain attention, planning organization)  Projectives  individuals are ask to describe what they see when images presented, ex. inkblots (insights from the unconscious or the subconscious)  DSM-IV TR/V  define psychopathology as symptoms within an individual that impairs one's activity  Psychopathology is about distress and impairment  Empirically-based approaches (not categorically diagnoses) o The person with distress is somewhere on the line o These gather a lot of data on people  Dimensional approach  developed for different gender, age  The importance of "what is normal" o Ex. cranky adolescents, aggressive kids, teens who are dramatic Theoretical Approaches to Treatment  Mostly behavioural or cognitive for child psychopath  Psychodynamic  problem is within the unconscious (we are not aware where the problem is; the child attaches a scar with a person then going back to find who that person is) o Unless we uncover the psychological scar from our childhood/adolescence trauma, we cannot move forward o Psychodynamic for child psychopath  Melanie Klein  Behavioural  if we can't see it, we cannot treat it o Dysfunction is within the person when the person sees it o Treatment is learning replacement behaviour that are more functional o Uses strategies: Desensitization, modeling o Behaviourists are about rewards and punishment  Cognitive  assumes that
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