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Lecture 6

Psychology 46-322 Lecture 6: Notes on Abuse and Maltreatment

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Lecture 6 on Abuse and Maltreatment Defining Maltreatment  Prior to WWII, we had no concept of maltreatment; parents presume to know best  Cultural prevalence  different cultural norms; different cultures have different points of views  Cultures changes our perspectives  Cannot get a clear definition of neglect, physical abuse; sexual abuse; psychological abuse ex. manipulation, psychological behavioural control; domestic violence (youth and parents)  Cultural reference points  beating/spanking can be a criminal offense (ex. India, Sri Lanka) o Some countries see giving a child his/her own room as neglect Physical Abuse  Acts that result in actual or potential harm to the child, perpetrated by a caregiver who could have the ability to perform the act  3% of the children are physically abused ; half are 7 years or younger, a quarter are 3 years or younger  Seriously injured are more likely to be older children; infants might die from serious injuries  At greatest risk  little boys and adolescent girls  White children are more likely to be abused than minority children  Most physically abused children are children with problems (parents struggle with their misbehaviour)  Outcomes  attachment problems, emotional problems, aggression, controlling emotions (emotion discontrol), hostile attribution bias, abusing romantic partners and/or offsprings  Predictive factors  poverty, individuals with lower income (with more children, more stress), parent personality factors, aggressive tendency, individuals with poor preparation for parenting, parents with their own set of cognitive distortion (may result in stable internal traits), cultural contexts (what the society defines violence)  Stages of abuse o Parents feeling stressed, and getting more and more of accepting the idea of using violence (don’t have the strategy of dealing with the stress)  where intervention comes in o Parents struggle to manage their crisis, may use harsher behaviours (they get angry and anticipate to interact with the child)  more direct intervention is needed (ex. Triple P; to help the parents to cope) o Persisting pattern of parents being emotional (intervention gets a lot more challenging but not impossible) o Once parents are actively abusing the child, the child is less likely to report Neglect  Failure to provide physical health, emotional/mental health, education, nutrition, shelter, a safe environment  It has to be in the caregiver's ability to provide, otherwise it would not be neglect  More common in babies and young children (they either receive intervention or they are removed from home)  No gender differences  More common in minority children than in white children (due to SES)  Developmental course o Delays in developmental milestones (ex. language, walking, talking) o Academic achievement (long term impact, academi
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