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Lecture 11

Psychology 46-322 Lecture 11: Lectures 11,12 on Conduct Problems

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University of Windsor

Lecture 11,12 on Conduct Problems Frick's Model  Describing kid's behaviour on two continuums  Destructive  something being damaged  Overt  likely to be observed by others  Covert  unlikely to be observed by others; not intended  Destructive overt  Physical assault, bullying, harming animals  Non-destructive overt behaviour  running away from home, opposition (ex. arguing, annoying others, being stubborn, angry) ODD vs. CD  We don’t diagnose kids who are touchy, as part of child development  We want kids to develop autonomy  All 2-3 year olds have temper tantrum  ODD o Must have 4 symptoms, clinical impair (symptoms interfere with normal functioning) o Onset: around age 3 (pre-school) and adolescence o Small gender difference in pre-school  CD o Persistent pattern of anti-social behaviours (violating rights of others, significant property damage, violate social norms) o Must have at least 3 symptoms; must be on going for a period of 12 months; those symptoms must be present in the past 6 months o Line drawn at age 10 o More likely to appear at adolescence o Rare in females o Symptoms first exhibited in pre-school o Easier to find aggression in males than females Violence  Violence is more deadly now than before  Types of aggression (Dodge: hostile attribution bias) o Angry aggression  impulsive aggression not well fought out (easily to identity the bully); the bully does not know they're harming someone o Withhold aggression  pro-active by the individual; creates weapons and networks of aggression that involves planning  Violence happens at school, on the way to and from the school (school usually has zero tolerance for weapons)  Relational and physical aggression  Bullying starts pre-school; boys are more likely to be both bully and victim  Bully o Aggression towards peers and adults o The earlier the bully bullies a much older person, the worse the outcome o More likely to be exposed to violence (ex. TV or video games) o Want to dominant others (usually above the person they victimized) o Lack empathy for the victim o More likely to be physically bigger than their victim o Those who bully early are more likely to involve in crimes  Victims o Usually not part of the social network o Victims have low self-esteem or have lower social support o More likely to have internalizing symptoms: Loneliness, anxiety, depressive symptoms, suicidal Epidemiology  Half of kids with ODD will develop CD  Unlikely to develop CD if don’t have ODD  Incidents: 2-5% ODD; 1-2% CD  Unlikely to diagnose ODD with CD at once  Parenting  behaviours associated with ADHD usually root from parents o Kids with ADHD who go on to develop ODD usually results in isolation of the kids, threats of violence from the parent  Kids with ODD and CD  Likely to be rejected by peers, lower school achievements, verbal and language difficulties, deficits in planning and organizing, anxiety disorders Developmental Course  Somewhat stable  symptoms stay unless something is done (ex. intervention)  But most individuals become at least better  Age of onset  childhood onset persistent like course anti-social behaviour (likely to develop CD. Cognitive impairment, don’t always act alone) o Child onset  Heterotypic  different descriptive behaviours (behaviours will be bad over time)  behavioural problems across life o Adolescence time limited  unlikely to finish education, more likely to have relationship and employment problems, more likely to abuse and neglect the children  Developmental paths o Overt path  kids who are easy to identify anti-social behaviours (ex. annoying/bullying others, gang involvement, actual violent in adulthood) o Covert path  early behaviours like shop-lifting and lying, moving up to vandalizing, moving to more serious crimes o Authority path Etiology  Risk factors o Child based factors  difficult temperament, kids who are impulsive, aggressive behaviour, or with low IQs are more likely to develop ODD and CD o Parents with substance use, domestic violence, school-related risk factors (low grades, suspension) o Peer support for inappropriate behaviours, neighbourhood problems  Biological factors o Early temperament (toddlers being difficult predict long-term difficulty, exposure to drugs and alcohol)  Ppl with ODD or CD usually have lower autonomic arousal  lower sensitivity to their
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