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Lecture 14

Psychology 46-322 Lecture 14: Lectures 14,15 on Mood Disorders

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University of Windsor

Lecture 14,15 on Mood Disorders Types of Mood Disorders  **Depressive as a mood is different from depression as a disorder  Intense sadness, loneliness, worry, rumination; impair in functioning and/or significant distress Dysthymic Disorder  Low rate but long-term of symptoms  Symptoms for a year for children, 2 years for adults  Changes of course development in child for having symptoms for that long  Symptoms may be irritable than sadness  Symptoms also include sleeping changes, low energy or fatigue, low self-esteem or poor concept, concentration or attention problems, and hopelessness  must have 2 of these symptoms to be diagnosed  Children with this disorder are distracted by their own thoughts (can't concentrate on what's happening on the outside because of what's happening on the inside) Major Depressive Disorder  5 or more symptoms, one of which must be irritability or depressive episodes (at least 2 weeks for children)  Always has acute symptoms with obvious point of onset; without it, it is not major depressive episode  In children it is rare to have psychotic features with depressive episodes (but not true for adults)  Double depression  when the person was dysthymic, now have major depressive episode in the presence of dysthymia  It is likely to have another episode if one episode occurs  Prevalence o Very rare in young pre-schoolers, more frequent in childhood; by adolescence we consider it as adulthood o The point prevalence is less than 1%; any time in their life is about 25% o Increasing rate of major depressive disorder over time not because of greater awareness or stigma  Maybe because we live in a more stressful world than before  The information we get on the internet and social media is unusually negative  We are really bad at doing positive habits (ex. getting healthy diet, exercise regularly, cultural problems, life style habit problems)  Demographic risk factors o People who have fewer resources have lower SES status, and more likely to be diagnosed; also have fewer resources to cope with the depression o Families with challenging kids o Kids living in chaotic neighbourhoods or neighbourhoods filled with violence are more likely to become depressed o Minorities are less likely to get treatment regardless of SES and income levels  Developmental Perspectives o Symptoms domain  Emotional (ex. feeling sad, lonely, feeling like the world doesn’t understand)  Cognitive (ex. cognitive distortions and beliefs)  Motivational (ex. sitting on a coach looking lifeless)  no longer finding pleasure in things that are pleasurable (in child we are concerned about peer activity; in adult they are sexual activity)  Physical symptoms such as bodily aches and maybe fatigue  back, stomach (common in kids and adults) o Infancy  Environmental risk factors like neglect  Developmental delays, infants with depression do not move a lot  Self-harming behaviours (ex. biting finger and head banging) o Preschool  Very rare  Sad facial expression, developmental regression (ex. accidents)  Also exhibit social withdraw (not motivated to be socially active)  Also have big somatic complains (challenging to treat diagnostically)  preschoolers  Irritability  touchy, over-sensitive o Childhood (8-9 year olds)  More depressed moods are observed  More cognitive self-focus, become self-critical, they experience guilt (probably for things they shouldn't feel guilt for), no longer finding pleasure in things that are pleasurable  Hyperactivity and aggressive behaviours if they develop these tendency  Symptoms are more common than infancy and preschool o Adolescence  Kids who are depressed are more likely to be delinquent, have bigger mood swings  Sleep more than usual  Onset of suicidal behaviours (ex. head banging becomes very lethal)  Females are more likely to have more suicidal thoughts (females are more likely to use less lethal means such as pills than males)  Males are more likely to use more lethal means (ex. gun) and complete the suicide than females  Big time for suicidal behaviours (the transition from adolescence to adulthood and elderly)  Onset o 15 years old; age 11 for dysthymic o Hormone levels put females at risk; males have onset later than females but lasts throughout life  Females are going up and down hormonally  Body dissatisfaction theory  the media portrays females bodies in a negative way (thin female role models)  major risk factor for adolescence mood disorders  Relational aggression  increases other poor outcomes including mood disorder  Females hide their competencies  Internalizing behaviours are more normative for females than males  Early aggressive behaviours for males  increased risk for major depressive disorder  Comorbidity o Most common: any of the anxiety disorders o In boys, second common comorbidity: externalizing disorder ODD and CD  Etiology (Slide 7) o Biological  inheritable (20-45%); ongoing controversial with mood, more stress hormones (mayb
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